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Transcript of Inclusion
Roots of Inclusion
Inclusion is the instruction of students receiving special services in the general education classroom (Upchurch, 2007).
Least Restrictive Environment (LRE) mandates schools provide supports allowing students with disabilities to be included in the general curriculum and classroom as appropriate for each student.
A student's LRE falls somewhere on a spectrum. Students spend a certain percentage of their day in special or general classrooms according to LRE. Students are assigned federal settings based on this time (Taylor, 2004).
Augmentative and Alternative
Inclusion Later in
Services that bridge the transition from school to functional living for students ages 18-21 (Peper, 2012).
Instruction focuses on:
Functional daily living skills
Post secondary options
An Introduction for General Educators
Who is Being Included: High Incidence Disabilities
Autism Spectrum Disorder
Developmental Cognitive Disability
Emotional Behavioral Disability
Specific Learning Disability
Speech Language Impairment
Students with physical disabilities may use wheelchairs, have visual or hearing impairments, or have limited physical movement. They may or may not have a cognitive disability.
Although autism is not considered a high-incidence disability, it is seen in many classrooms. Students with Autism are identified on a spectrum. They may have severe cognitive impairments or mild disabilities not obvious to others. These students typically struggle socially as well as with communication.
Students with DCD have cognitive impairments that affect their ability to perform academic and functional skills to the level of their peers.
Minnesota Department of Education. (2012). Special Education eligibility checklists. Retrieved from http://education.state.mn.us/MDE/SchSup/ComplAssist/Monitoring/Checklists/index.html
Students with EBD have significantly different behaviors from that of their peers which adversely affects their success in the general education curriculum.
Students with a learning disability have problems in math, reading, or both. These are not associated with an overall cognitive disability.
Students' speech impairments interfere with their ability to communicate.
Twist on "Telephone" and "Pictionary"
The first person in the circle whispers a phrase to the second.
The second person must draw a representation of what the first told him or her.
The third person interprets the drawing and verbally communicates this, via whisper, to the fourth person.
This continues through the circle...
This activity signifies the
importance of communicating. When communications go awry,
the student ultimately
suffers. It is up to the general and special education teachers to communicate effectively in order to help students succeed.
What Does Inclusion Look Like in My Classroom?
One Teach, One Observe
One Teach, One Assist
Alternative or Differentiated Teaching
One teacher is able to collect data on student/teacher
One teacher is able to assist students while the other instructs
Students are grouped and able to complete multiple lessons
The teachers instruct the same lesson, each to half the students
One teacher instructs at grade level; the other instructs repeated or adapted lessons
The students have the same learning outcomes, but different methods are used to instruct
Both teachers are actively involved in the lesson
Alternative Augmentative Communication
What is AAC?
Who uses AAC?
What to Expect
Models of Co-Teaching
teachers collaborating to make lessons most meaningful for all students.
What is Inclusion?
Assigned to a student, not a "class"
Able to assist individual students
Able to lead small groups
Assist classroom teacher
Ensure classroom routine is communicated
Clear, concise, constructive
Address problems early
Special Education: Federal Settings
Placement is determined on individual need and severity of disability.
Accommodations and modifications are provided by the school and should allow the student to be included in general education when appropriate.
These are considered high incidence disabilities and are the most common to spend time in inclusive settings.
Working with Paraprofessionals
SPED and GEN should collaborate
Help avoid confusion
Locate in an emergency
Model effective teaching strategies
Address problems early
In the Classroom...
This is an example of a schedule for a paraprofessional for one morning. Keep in mind they are very busy. Communicate with BOTH the paraprofessional and special education teacher about scheduling problems or changes to ensure everyone has clear expectations.
An AAC is any device a student uses to aid in communication (Bailey et al., 2011).
Examples of AAC
Students using AAC are those with communication impairments.
They may use devices from picture schedules to full voice output systems.
A students' communication system is included in their IEP.
Special and general education should collaborate to ensure the use of the AAC is consistent and effective across environments (Bailey et al., 2011).
Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS)
Voice output systems
Eye gaze devices
American Sign Language (ASL)
Example of a voice output system
The app shown is Proloquo2go and is used on the iPad.
Dan Habib (Writer & Director). (2008). Including Samuel [Motion Picture]. Retrieved from youtube.com.
Alternative Living Solutions
Students live with minimal supports on their own
Recreation and leisure
Currently, transition instruction has resources that best meet the needs of students with mild disabilities (Wagner, 1989).
Working together with special education teachers as well as para professionals is important for students to succeed.
Communication between general and special education is critical when including students with special needs.
Informal meetings or notes can keep information up to date with all involved (Gately & Gately, 2001).
Setting specific expectations for others working in your classroom will ensure students are being included appropriately (Gately & Gately, 2001).
Modifications and adaptations should be appropriate for students with special needs to make progress in the general curriculum.
Work in the general classroom should reflect the IEP goals and objectives of the individual student.
Consistency in using communication devices is vital for the student to use it regularly and appropriately.
Consistency in classroom management and expectations avoids confusion among colleagues.
Students with special needs often thrive using routines and consistent expectations (Gately & Gately, 2001).
The Pacer Center is a parent advocate organization offering valuable information about people with disabilities. They offer publications, workshops, and are especially helpful in the area of Assistive Technology (AT).
Council for Exceptional Children is an organization providing current and reliable information about people with disabilities and special education. CEC offers conferences, journals, and other professional development tools for teachers.
Council for Exceptional Children (CEC)
Minnesota Department of Education
The Minnesota Department of Education is an excellent resource for providing the most current state regulations regarding education. They offer many valuable resources and tools such as state standards, special education disability checklists, licensing information and resources regarding Response to Intervention (RTI). They also offer information for parents and students.
Discuss strengths and weaknesses
Share your philosophy
Strategies and tools
Life after school
In the classroom...
Communication is necessary
Use strengths and weaknesses
Planning reduces confusion;
Make expectations clear
Apartment- based communities
Students have individual apartments
Assistance is available based on need
Group residential communitites
Supported family-style living
Clinical treatment offered off-site
Clinical treatment programs
Treatment available site
Most supported environment
Peper, Christine. (2012). Transition. Retrieved from Lecture Notes.
Gately, S. E., & Gately, F. (2001). Understanding co-teaching components. Teaching Exceptional Children, 33(4), 40-47.
Bailey, R. L., Angell, M. E., & Stoner, J. B. (2011). Improving literacy skills in students with complex communication needs who use augmentative/ alternative communication systems. Education & Training In Autism & Developmental Disabilities, 46(3), 352-368.
Hupp, Susan. (2013). Paraprofessional Schedule. Retrieved from class website.
Thiesse, M.; Vogel, L.; Strickland, A.; Gokey, S. (2013). Working with Paraprofessional. Workshop and presentation.
Zelkowitz, Alyssa. (2008, December 18). Six Models for Collaborative Team Teaching. [Web Log Comment] Retrieved from http://blogs.scholastic.com/special_ed/2008/12/six- models-for.html
Low incidence disabilities. (2014). Retrieved from
Taylor, Steven J. . (2004). Caught in the continuum: A critical analysis of the principle of the least restrictive environment. Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 29(4), 218-230.
Upchurch, Jeanne D. (2007). As the Pendulum Swings: Impact of Inclusion on Academic Performance and Behavioral Referrals (Doctoral Dissertation). Retrieved from http://digitalcommons.liberty.edu/fac_dis/8
LRE is a part of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 2004 (IDEA 2004), which maintains the legal rights of students with disabilities.
Think, Pair, Share...
Share reactions from the clip.
Why do you think students may not be included in the general classroom/curriculum?
What do you think are some advantages of inclusion?
for students with disabilities?
for students without disabilities?
Who is being included
What is something you can do to make cooperative teaching successful in your classroom?
What is something you think would make cooperative teaching unsuccessful?
Take a moment to reflect:
What is your teaching philosophy?
Why might this be important to consider before working with someone?
Is the final answer close to the original?
In the Classroom...
Know the device
What is a resource you could use if you needed help with AAC?
Take a moment to discuss:
Have you ever seen AAC used ineffectively?
How could you help this teacher to make working with the AAC beneficial for the student?
Understand the goals of the student
Wagner, M., & SRI International, M. C. (1989). The Transition Experiences of Youth with Disabilities: A Report from the National Longitudinal Transition Study.
By: Molly Thiesse
This presentation is meant to be used as a staff development for general educators. Many general education teachers have little experience with strategies and tools for working with students with special needs. This presentation is meant to provide some of these resources to help teachers help their students.