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Chapter 5

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Nicole Johnson

on 29 January 2015

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Transcript of Chapter 5

Chapter 5
Society and Inequality in Eurasia/North Africa

Society and the State in China
Chinese society was shaped by the action of the state.
Especially in political power and social prestige
The Han dynasty established its power in China around 200 B.C.E., the rulers required each province to send men of promise to the capital.
They were examined and chosen for official positions on the basis of their performance.
Patriarchy and Women's Voice Documents
Different Classes of People in China
An Elite of Officials
First professional civil service
An imperial academy where potential official were trained as scholars and immersed in texts dealing with history, math, science, and art with emphasis on Confusion's teachings.
30,000 students
The Landlord Class
In China, wealthy often refereed to land.
Landlords of large estates were able to avoid paying taxes.
Causing a lose in state revenues thus, increasing tax burden for peasants.
Many houses had silk clothing, gleaming carriages, private orchestras, and high-stakes gambling.
The vast majority of the population were peasants.
Lived in small housing representing two or three generations.
Could barely survive from day to day.
Peasants either sold out their land to large landlords or fled.
Peasant rebellion was common for 2,000 years.
Viewed as unproductive, making a shameful profit from selling the work of others.
Greedy, luxury-loving, and materialistic.

Roman Slavery
Athens was home to nearly 60,000 slaves. This increase in slavery speed up the growth of their society hierarchy.
Typical Greek attitude towards slavery was, "It was a terrible thing to become a slave, but a good thing to own a slave"
Majority of these slaves were prisoners captured during the wars that accompanied the creation of the empire.
Roman slavery was not related to race.
If a slave murdered his owner all of that owners slaves was put to death for this slaves actions.
All belongings a slave had was seen as property of the owners.
Patriarchy and Women's Voice Documents
Roman Women in Protest
Document 5.1
Document 5.3
Lessons For Women
Written by Ban Zhou (45 - 116 C.E.)
Outlines principles of Confucianism to lives and behavior of women
Humility, Husband and Wife, Respect & Caution,Womanly Qualifications, Implicit Obedience
Wants her daughters to live empowered lives as women
"Such docility may be called obedience which sacrifices personal opinion" (p. 246).
Visual Documents 5.2
Pompeii Banquet and Pompeii Tavern
The city of Pompeii was an ancient Roman town-city near modern Naples
Banquets and dinner parties were an important part of Roman life
The tavern was a place of business where people gather to drink alcoholic beverages and be served food. This is also where travelers receive lodging
Visual Documents 5.2
Domestic Side of Pompeii
Occasionally women would protest in public not just in writing
Outlines the debate among Roman officials and Roman women to repeal old laws which restricted women's use of luxury goods
Written by a male historian several hundred years later.
Law was eventually repealed, took a large effort from the women.
Slavery: The Roman Empire
The domestication of animals provided the model for enslaving people.
Women captives were the first slaves with men having full control over the women.
Slavery and Civilization
Slaves were generally owned by a master with a possibility of being sold, they worked without pay, and received the status of an 'outsider' and were at the bottom of the social hierarchy.
In some societies the children of slaves were automatically considered slaves and usually didn't have a chance at being free. But the Aztec Empire did allow the children of slaves to be considered free.
In India the slave owners did have to provide adequately for their slaves and could not abandon them in their old age. The Indian slave owners did have to abide by many different regulations.
Slaves were generally owned by a master with a possibility of being sold, they worked without pay, and received the status of an 'outsider' and were at he bottom of the social hierarchy.
Mount Vesuvius erupted in AD79, which showered hot volcanic ashes on the city of Pompeii
Among the treasures that emerged from the buried streets is a fresco of the bakery owner Terentius Neo and his wife
The scroll and the stylus they are holding show that they are literate and cultured.
They seem to be treated as equal partners
Shows the social structure of this society during this time period
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