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How to Clone a Mammoth

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Danielle Roodt

on 23 October 2014

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Transcript of How to Clone a Mammoth

How to Clone a Mammoth
Danielle Roodt
Definition: To make an identical copy of

A cell, group of cells, or organism that is descended from and genetically identical to a single common ancestor


Cloning
1996
Cloning

2001- CC 2003- Prometea





2003- Futhi


Extant species
2009- Pyrenean Ibex
Extinct species
Gastric brooding frog
Tasmanian tiger
Passenger pigeon
Currently…
How cloning works
DNA cloning

Recombinant DNA technology/molecular cloning/gene cloning
DEVELOPMENT
TO BE CLONED’S CELL
DONOR EGG
Reproductive cloning

Generate an individual with same nuclear DNA as a previously existing individual
Mammuthus primigenius
The Woolly Mammoth
How to bring Manny back
Why??
Further scientific knowledge about evolution and speciation
Technological advancements, especially genetic engineering
Environmental benefits
Justice…
Awesomeness!!!
Replace a family pet
Replace a lost child
Organ growing
Back-ups
No rejection issues
No waiting list
Therapeutic cloning

Generate stem cells identical to the patient for use in regenerative medicine
GENERATE SPECIFIC
CELL TYPES
PATIENT’S CELL
DONOR EGG
Back breeding








Or select for “mammoth traits” and selectively breed a mammoth-like elephant
Reproductive cloning







Reproductive cloning 3-4% success rate
Genetic engineering
Present for thousands of years

Agriculture

Selecting species for specific traits

Directional selection

Evolution of new species
GMOs
To alter the DNA of an organism using genetic engineering techniques
Faster form of selective breeding
1970s-viruses

Today:
Genetic modification
We’ll ban this, right?
Exhausts soil
Uses extra land
Low yield
Contamination
Requires toxic pesticides
ORGANIC FARMING!!
Golden Rice
Biosynthesises beta-carotene
2000
No adverse health affects
Nutrition –enhancing
Non-profit
Empowers the poor
Fewer insecticides and pesticides necessary
Screen for cancer, heart disease, depression, addictions and obesity susceptible genes
Sure, why not?

Decrease burden of disease- individual and population level

Ensure healthier offspring and decreased medical bills
Next up: Designer babies
Select sex, eye colour, genes related to height, intelligence and athletic ability
The child is still you, simply the best of you

Saviour siblings

Satisfy disabled couples
Deafness
Dwarfism
Unlimited
Create "better" organisms
Save lives
Improve living conditions
Further scientific knowledge
Is it necessary to draw a line?
Who decides?
Genetic modification
Anti-Vaxxers
Anti-Vaxxers
MMR (measles, mumps and rubella) causes autism

Based on a flawed study retracted in 2010
Unable to replicate
Bias results
Squalene causes Gulf War Syndrome

Anthrax vaccine
Naturally occurs in plants and animals (including humans)
No studies to support claim
Anti-Vaxxers
Want vaccines that are 100% safe

Vaccines make Big Pharma and physicians rich

Too many antigens are given to a child at once

Vaccines cause autism
This makes sense
If an overwhelming majority of experts say something is true, then any sensible non-expert should assume that they are probably right
But see for yourself!
“Not ignorance, but ignorance of ignorance, is the death of knowledge”
-Alfred North Whitehead

Read, Google! Ignorance is a choice
Science in general
Full transcript