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Periodisation

By Neil Parker
by

Neil Parker

on 3 November 2015

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Transcript of Periodisation

PERIODISATION
Specification
Candidates should be able to:
define periodisation
macro
meso
micro cycles
plan a personal health and fitness programme that will promote sustained involvement in a balanced, active and healthy lifestyle; the plan should include the principles of training.
Macrocycle
PPQ
Mesocycle
Microcycle
Periodisation is a training principle that splits training into specific blocks.
What are the benefits of using periodisation when designing a training programme?
Explain how a performer might use periodisation to structure their training programme for one year. [6]
Mark scheme
6 marks in total
sub max 2 marks:
1.(Timing/peaking for event) helps to ensure that an optimal physiological peak is reached at the correct time for an important competition e.g. Olympics / World Cup etc
2.(specific component) each block is designed to prepare a specific performance component, e.g. sprint start
3.(variance) training is therefore split into smaller units to maintain motivation/avoid boredom/overtraining/allows recovery
4.double periodisation allows the performer to peak for a qualifying round and the championships

sub max 4 marks:
1.split year into macrocycles, mesocycles and microcycles
2.macrocycle as the long term/one year training block
3.(long-term objective plus example) e.g. ensuring peak physical condition for the competition season
4.mesocycle as the intermediate training block/between 1-4 months
5.(medium-term objective plus example) e.g. increase strength/ power/endurance
6.microcycle as the short term training block/up to 3 weeks
7.(short-term objective plus example) e.g. resistance training each week to ensure sufficient recovery and develop endurance strength/outcome of one session
8.split year into seasons/off-season, pre-season and competitive season
9.in off-season phase performer will build a training base/develop general fitness, e.g. aerobic capacity/muscular endurance/flexibility/this might involve fartlek/aerobic/interval/ circuit/weight training/used for recovery
10.in pre-season phase performer will develop more specific fitness/training sessions will increase in intensity/focus on the fitness components important for the event/specificity e.g. develop speed/appropriate energy system/techniques/ skills
11.in the competitive season performer will aim to maintain fitness levels/remain injury free e.g. continue training but ensure rest days/appropriate diet
12.before competitive season, performer may use tapering
13.tapering involves reducing the training to allow the body to achieve maximum energy stores prior to competition e.g. focus more on technique than developing fitness
14.this would usually last between 1-3 weeks prior to competition
[6]
Benefits of Periodisation:
Timing/peaking for event: helps to ensure that an optimal physiological peak is reached at the correct time for an important competition e.g. Olympics / World Cup
Specific component: each block is designed to prepare a specific performance component, e.g. sprint start
Variance: training is therefore split into smaller units to maintain motivation/avoid boredom/overtraining/allows recovery
Double periodisation allows the performer to peak for a qualifying round and the championships
Ensures that principles of training are applied
Moderation/reversibility: helps prevent overtraining
Specificity: Each block is designed to prepare a specific performance component
Overload: Allows the performer to manipulate training intensity.
Progression
Flexible
Long term training block (Usually a year) but in some cases such as for Olympians they can last up to 4 years.
Intermediate training block (usually 1 - 4 months)
The short term training blocks
(usually no longer than 3 weeks)
Periodisation:
An organised division of training into a number of specific blocks, periods or phases.
Aim:
To ensure athletes progressively develop to reach a skill/physiological peak at the correct time for an ultimate sporting target.
Peaking:




Tapering:
Reducing the training load a few days prior to a big event so that fatigue can be reduced and they are able to ‘Peak’ during competition.
Making sure your body and mind are in the best possible state in order to perform optimally during competition.
The player will want to peak here for the match.
The coach will start to taper the training by reducing the training volume/load prior to the match in order to prevent fatigue and maximse energy stores.
A typical mesocycle may include aiming to increase speed, strength or endurance....
In its simplistic form this cycle can be split into three phases:
Off season (transition)
Pre-season
Competition (In season)
Task:
For your sport think about the key competitive season(s). How would your year be split into pre, competition and off season?
Off Season: Developing a base level of general fitness
Pre season: More specific fitness including more sport specific work. The intensity of training increases.
Competition: Maintenance of fitness levels, injury prevention.
A number of small training sessions or 'units' will usually make up a micro cycle
Rugby League: A Case study
Athlete profile:
Personal details
Age: 16 yrs
Height: 187 cm
Weight: 85 kg
Sport: Rugby League
Position: Centre

Competitive history
This athlete has been a member of the Brisbane Broncos development squad for the past 2 years & was an Australian Schoolboys representative in 2005. It is assumed that the player has been participating in Rugby League for at least 5 years.

Training age
2 yrs using at-home strength equipment. It is hypothesized that programs have been self-designed using information gained through involvement with the Broncos development squad.

Injury history
Nil
Transition Phase:
The primary objectives of this phase are:
 Physical regeneration after the competitive season
 Psychological regeneration after the competitive season
 Maintain some basic fitness (and social interaction) through active recreational pursuits (eg surfing)
 Address any injury concerns with medical personnel
 Liaise with support personnel (ie dietician) about a food plan to assist with lean muscle gain.

General preparation phase:
The primary objectives of this phase are:
 Develop an aerobic base that will allow other training goals to be met in later phases
 Participate in aerobic cross-training activities with a view to maintaining physical & psychological health later in the competitive year
 Address any muscle imbalances through specific strength work
 Increase lean muscle mass & max strength.

Specific preparation phase:
The primary objectives of this phase are:
 Continue development of maximum strength
 Conversion of strength to power
 Development of anaerobic endurance
 Development of speed & agility to improve 40 m sprint time.


Competition phase:
The personal objectives of this phase are:
 To gain selection in the Australian Schoolboys team
 To gain selection in the Toowoomba Clydesdales squad
 Be prepared for entry into an NRL team environment.

The team objectives of this phase are:
 To make the final of the Arrive Alive Cup (schoolboy competition)
 To make the semi-finals of the local club competition.

The physical/psychological objectives of this phase are:
 To maintain physical components (strength, power, speed, endurance) throughout the season
 To ensure training is specific yet variable enough to prevent overtraining & burnout
 To re-develop power & anaerobic qualities (endurance & speed) for 2 peaks throughout the competitive year (April & August).
For this player the specific preparation phase is made up of 6 micro cycles (weeks) which each consist of several units (training sessions)...
Example micro-cycle & unit......
Each session/unit is likely to have a very specific focus e.g. speed/strength/Power depending upon the athletes and sports requirements
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