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Inter- and Intra- Religious Conflicts: Christianity and Islam

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Anna Wang

on 21 November 2014

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Transcript of Inter- and Intra- Religious Conflicts: Christianity and Islam

Inter- and Intra- Religious Conflicts: Christianity and Islam
Group #7:
Trevor Christensen, Mia Falcone, Claire Kennedy, Johannes Reitinger, Anna Wang, and Elly Yochum

Thesis
The conflicts within and between Islam and Christianity were largely fought over doctrines, geography, and politics. They took place in the Middle East and Europe and were mainly between:
Intra-Islam: (Sunni-Shi'a, Salafi/Wahhabism-Sufi)
Intra-Christianity (Orthodox-Catholic, Protestant Reformation)
Inter Christianity-Islam
The level of involvement of a religion in government determined the nature of the conflicts.
Intra-Christianity
Intra-Islam
Inter-Christianity
and Islam

Who
: Orthodox, Catholic churches
What
: Divided into different religions, some conflict (Davies)
When
: Split in 1054
Where
: Europe, mostly around the Mediterranean
Why
: Catholics saw that the Orthodox desecrated their holy books and didn't practice communion in the right way (Davies) and slightly differing religious beliefs (Azkoul)
Who
: The Sunni, Shi'a (Rahman)
What
: Centuries of violent conflict in search for dominance
When
: Since the split into two major denominations ("Sects of Islam")
Where
: Worldwide, but mostly in the Middle Eastern countries of Iran and Iraq. ("Shia Islam")
Why
: Antagonism over difference in beliefs over worship and prophets
Who
: Christian and Islamic religions
What
: Wars over Jerusalem ("Jerusalem captured in first Crusades")
When
: since creation of Christian and Islamic religions
Where
: Jerusalem
Why
: dispute over biblical texts and events, especially over sacred land
Sunni
and the Shia
Who
: Protestant, Catholic, Martin Luther
What
: Killed each other in horrible ways, launched several wars such as Thirty Years War (Carlin)
When
: 1517 CE
Where
: Began in Germany, spread throughout Europe
Why
: The Catholic church had practices such as indulgences, and people thought this was wrong (Carlin)
Orthodox
and Catholic
Protestant Reformation
Sufi
and the Salafi
Interactive
Visual Example
Interaction Debrief
Conclusion
NOTICE: The following presentation contains copyrighted materials used under the Multimedia Guidelines and Fair Use exemptions of U.S. Copyright law. Further use is prohibited.
Terrorism (Political)
Orthodox v. Catholic
Protestant v. Catholic
Jerusalem (Geographic)

Wars throughout religion's history

Violence today, "ethnic cleansing"


Gov't involved/afffected
Recent conflict



Salafi/Wahhabists "purifying Islam"

Gov't, terrorists groups involved
Questions?
We will split you into seven groups: Sunni, Shia, Sufi, Salafi, Catholic, Orthodox, and Protestant.

This will help visually represent the scale of the conflicts.

divided because of geographical isolation and different cultures

Doctrinal differences were separate entities at first
divided because of social and political factors


differences less pronounced, as Luther sought only to reform the Catholic church, not start a new branch
Sunni v. Shi'a
Sufi v. Salafi
Two main causes for the religious conflicts:
Doctrinal and political disputes
Geographical/territorial conflicts
The magnitudes of these conflicts are different:
modern intra-Christian conflicts no longer violent
inter-Christian-Islam, intra-Islam conflicts are violent
Level of violence in conflicts affected by the role of religion in government
http://www.brooklynmuseum.org/opencollection/objects/3054/Battle_of_Karbala
Background
intra - root meaning "within, into"
conflicts within the religions
ex: Intra-Islamic and Intra-Christian
Islam
Sufi
Salafi
Sunni
Shi'a
Christianity
Protestant
Catholic
Orthodox
inter - root meaning "between, among"
conflicts between the religions
ex: Inter-Christian and Islamic
Who
: The Sufi and Salafi sects ("Sufism: The Mystical Side of Islam")
What
: Violent conflict, genocides, and government-funded conflict (Paracha)
When
: Modern times (the last 100-150 years) (Encyclopaedia Brittanica)
Where
: Middle East (Saudi Arabia), but mostly Egypt and the Sudan
Why
: Difference in extremist vs. mystical beliefs, devout sects trying to compete with each other (Paracha)

Photo Credits
Al-Musavi, Abbas. Battle of Karbala. about 1800. Brooklyn Museum, New York. Web. 17 Nov. 2014. <http://www.brooklynmuseum.org/opencollection/objects/3054/Battle_of_Karbala>.
Asbridge, Tom. Crusades. Web. 17 Nov. 2014. <http://www.theguardian.com/books/2010/june/02/crusades-tom-asbridge-hay-festival>.
Battlefield: Battle of Karbala. Web. 17 Nov. 2014. <http://static.newworldencyclopedia.org/b/b0/Battlefield>.
Jerusalem: The Old City Map. Web. 17 Nov. 2014. <http://media.maps.com/magellan/Images/NGC_Apr_1996b_c.jpg>.
Map of Islam Shia and Sunni. 2007. Cambridge Forecast Group. Web. 17 Nov. 2014. <https://cambridgeforecast.wordpress.com/2007/02/19/map-of-islam-shia-sunni/>.
St. Henry Catholic Church side. Web. 17 Nov. 2014. <http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:St._Henry_Catholic_Church_side.jpg>.
Thirty Years War. Web. 17 Nov. 2014. <http://www.shsu.edu/~his_ncp/Thirty.html>.
https://cambridgeforecast.wordpress.com/2007/02/19/map-of-islam-shia-sunni/
Compare / Contrast
Works Cited
Alvi, Hayat. "The Growing Threat of Wahhabism." SweetSearch. N.p., 11 June 2012. Web. 17 Nov. 2014.
Azkoul, Michael. "What Are the Differences between Orthodoxy and Roman Catholicism?" The Orthodox Page in America. St. Nectarios American Orthodox Church, 1994. Web. 18 Nov. 2014. <http://www.ocf.org/OrthodoxPage/reading/ortho_cath.html>.
Carlin, Dan. "Prophets of Doom." Audio blog post. Www.dancarlin.com. Orator LLC, 22 Apr. 2013. Web. 12 Nov. 2014.
"Crusades." History.com. A+E Networks, 2010. Web. 16 Nov. 2014. <http://www.history.com/topics/crusades>.
Davies, Maximos. "What Divides Orthodox and Catholics?" America Magazine. America Press Inc, 3 Dec. 2007. Web. 19 Nov. 2014. <http://americamagazine.org/issue/636/article/what-divides-orthodox-and-catholics>.
Encyclopaedia Britannica. N.p., 28 July 2014. Web. 16 Nov. 2014. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/634039/Wahhabi>.
Holy Bible. Grand Rapids: Zonderkidz, 1999. Print.
“Jerusalem captured in First Crusade.” History.com. A+E Networks, 2014. 21 Nov 2014. <http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/jerusalem-captured-in-first-crusade>.
Jomier, Jacques. The Bible and the Qur'an. Trans. Edward P. Arbez. San Francisco: Ignatius, 2002. Print.
Khan, Muhammad Zafrulla, trans. The Quran. New York: Olive Branch, 1991. Print.
Moore, John. "The Evolution of Islamic Terrorism: An Overview." PBS. Public Broadcasting Service, n.d. Web. 10 Nov. 2014. <http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/target/etc/modern.html>.
Paracha, Nadeem F. "Upsetting Sufis." Dawn Newspaper. N.p., 25 Oct. 2012. Web. 14 Nov. 2014. <http://www.dawn.com/news/759390/upsetting-sufis>.
Rahman, Fazlur. "Al-Islam." Encyclopaedia Britannica. N.p., 4 Apr. 2014. Web. 9 Oct. 2014. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/295507/Islam>.
"Salafi Intolerance Threatens Sufis." ProQuest. ProQuest LLC, 10 May 2010. Web. 17 Nov. 2014.
"Sects of Islam." Muslim Hope. N.p., Jan. 2009. Web. 9 Oct. 2014. <http://www.muslimhope.com/SectsOfIslam.htm>.
"Shia Islam." Patheos Library. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Oct. 2014. <http://www.patheos.com/Library/Shia-Islam.html>.
“Sufism: The Mystical Side of Islam." Reformed Internet Ministries. N.p., 3 June 2004. Web. 9 Nov. 2014. <http://www.rim.org/muslim/sufism.htm>.


Inter-religious conflict was due more to geographical/political factors
Intra-religious conflict happened because of doctrinal/political disputes
Analysis: The violence is present when religion controls the states
Each person represents roughly 75 million people

Sunni : Shia ≈ 9:1
Sufi : Salafi ≈ 5:1

Catholic : Orthodox ≈ 4:1
Catholic : Protestant ≈ 3:2
"'The Father demands the purification and the cleansing of his new Jerusalem. Our Republic cannot tolerate the confusions sown by impious sects. I advise
that we slaughter without delay
the Lutherans, the Papists, and all those who are not of the right faith.
None may remain alive in Zion but those who can offer the Father a pure and pleasing worship.
The only way to preserve the righteous from the contagion of the impure is to sweep them from the face of the Earth'" (Carlin).
"The time for making them pure came as it is written in the Law of Moses. So Joseph and Mary took Jesus to Jerusalem. There they presented him to the Lord" (Holy Bible 823).
Luke 2:22
"When the period of four months during which hostilities are suspended expires, without the idolaters having settled the terms of peace with you, resume
fighting with them and kill them wherever you find them
and make them prisoners and beleaguer them, and lie in wait for them at every place of ambush. Then if they repent and observe Prayer and pay the Zakat, leave them alone.
Surely, Allah is Most Forgiving, Ever Merciful
" (The Quran 173).
Crusades
Who
: Roman Catholic Branch
What
: military campaigns to restore Christian dominance in Jerusalem
When
: 1095
Where
: Jerusalem, Europe
Why
: gain more control than Islam, acquire the Sacred Land (Crusades)
Who
: Terrorist Islamic groups
What
: Terrorism, mass destruction
When
: continually in the modern age
Where
: Middle East, United States, worldwide
Why
: belief that Qur'an states that non-Islamics should be punished (Moore)
http://www.theguardian.com/books/2010/june/02/crusades-tom-asbridge-hay-festival
Wordle for
http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/belief/2010/may/10/islam-sufi-salafi-egypt-religion
http://static.newworldencyclopedia.org/b/b0/Battlefield
Battle of Karbala
Thirty Years War
http://www.shsu.edu/~his_ncp/Thirty.html
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:St._Henry_Catholic_Church_side
http://media.maps.com/magellan/Images/NGC_Apr_1996b_c
Full transcript