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Chapters 1-3

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Emily Urness

on 19 January 2016

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Transcript of Chapters 1-3

Chapters 1-3
Essential Linguistics
by David E. Freeman and Yvonne S. Freeman
Language acquisition
A natural process that occurs without conscious effort of any kind of direct teaching
The process that occurs in school when we consciously attend to information that is presented to us and attempt to master some subject
The arrangement (order) of words or phases in a language
The system of sounds in a language
Comprehensible Input:
Language that is at or just above the level of language of the student
Affective Filter:
Complex of negative emotional and motivational factors that may interfere with the reception and processing of comprehensible input
Chapters 1-3
Essential Linguistics
Chapter 1:
How Linguists Study Language
Chapter 2:
First Language Acquisition
Chapter 3:
Second and Written Language Acquisition
First Language
Written Language Acquisition
Approaches to the Study of Language
Emily Urness
ED 545
Winter 2016
Second Language Acquisition
First Language Acquisition
Is written language learned or acquired?
Noam Chomsky developed a theory called generative grammar, which says that there are a small set of rules that can be applied to generate all sentences in a language.
Humans acquire the basic structures of phonology and syntax at an early age, and continue to learn vocabulary throughout their lives.
First Language Acquisition
Children's language development is the same across languages and cultures
Children develop language as they interact with adults and other children (social interaction theory)
Correcting children's grammar inhibits the ability to develop language. Teachers should focus on the meaning of what the child is saying.
When talking with a child, speak at or just above the child's ability to comprehend
Is a second language learned or acquired?
Educators who believe second languages are
focus on teaching each part of the language separately (pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary). Classroom activities include drills, exercises, translations, and dialogues. Students learned the language first before studying other academic areas in the new language.

Educators who believe second languages are
teach language through academic content. The teachers uses strategies to make the language comprehensible (see graphic).
Examples of Current methods of of second language teaching
Total Physical Response
Structured Instruction Observation Protocol
Krashen's Theory of Second Language Acquisition
People acquire language in a natural order when they receive comprehensible input and have a low affective filter. People can use learned knowledge of a language to monitor their output.
Educators who believe written language is
break down writing into parts and teach one part at a time. Focus is placed on handwriting, spelling, punctuation, and organization.
Educators who believe written language is
emphasize the process of writing. They use the Gradual Release of Responsibility model (see graphic). The focus is on content- not just the form.
Language as structure:
Breaks language down into parts (nouns, verbs, etc.) and focuses on syntax

Language as mental faculty:
Humans are born with an innate ability to study language

Language as functional resource:
Language is a resource for making meaning and is learned through social interactions

Approaches to the Study of Language
Click here
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