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Cultural Carnivals

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Bailey Fissenden

on 3 June 2015

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Transcript of Cultural Carnivals

Cultural Carnivals
Venice Carnival, Rio Carnival & Mardi Gras
- Mardi Gras has been celebrated throughout Europe since the second century. Originally celebrated by the Romans, known then as Lupercalia, it was in honour of the deity Lupercus.

- When Christianity arrived in Rome, however, the Church believed that it should incorporate more Christian values. Hence it became a festival of merriment and debauchery leading up to the Lent period. The idea was to eat excessively and drink heavily and participate in as much decadent behaviour as possible before having to give it all up for Lent.

- Spreading throughout Europe, it eventually came to America through the French colonists Jean Baptiste Le Moyne Sieur de Bienville in 1699. On March the 2nd 1699, the colonists settled on a plot just outside what is now known as New Orleans, and named it "Pointe du Mardi Gras".

- The first public parade was held in New Orleans in 1857 and has been a tradition ever since.
Why does Mardi Gras exist?
I assume Mardi Gras gives people a chance at freedom to drink, eat and partake in revelry to excess as a community (sociology)
Mardi Gras Assumption
The Carnival of Venice celebrates people from all different social statuses where they would wear carnival masks and costumes to hide their true identity. This allowed everyone to socialise without fear and to enjoy the special occasion. Now it exists not only just for Venetian people to celebrate, but also for the many visitors it attracts.
Why does Venice Carnival exist?
I assume that Venice Carnival showcases the strong historical value of the masks and costumes and embraces their rich culture.
Venice Carnival Assumption
Rachel Chang

Anna Sargent

Bailey Fissenden

Team Members
Team Members
Group Assumptions
Cultural carnivals bring people together through the novelty of celebration and participating in an event and activities that are not part of their every day lives (psychological)
Group Assumptions
Group Assumptions
Cultural carnivals are a way for a country or city to show self expression and attract tourism (cultural)
Venice Carnival
Carnival of Venice is an annual event which is considered to be the oldest and most famous carnival in the world. This traditional festival is celebrated for the two weeks before Lent, finishing on Shrove Tuesday, the day before Ash Wednesday. Carnival comes from Latin, meaning “Farewell meat” to symbolize fasting during Lent. The carnival takes place in Venice and originally began in 1162. Masquerade masks were first introduced to the carnival in 1268. These celebrations were the only time when the lower and upper classes came together to celebrate, therefore people would wear masks to hide their identity from each other.

The Venice Carnival is famous for the masks people would wear, a traditional aspect of the Carnival, and attracts nearly 4 million tourists every year.

Research Question
What is the history of Carnival of Venice motivate people to celebrate from the past till now?
Past
- The first use of masks at the carnival was in 1268. The mask was a symbol of the festival as well as a symbol of equality. People who wore masks and costumes at Venice Carnival found it was a opportunity to hide who they were and create another identity for themselves, allowing them to forget their live's problems and enjoy the festival all together as a community,

- In 1776, a new law stated that women were not allowed to go to the theater without wearing a mask to cover their faces.

- The carnival was outlawed in 1797 and didn't return again to Venice until 1980
Present
- Nowadays, the Venice Carnival is mainly focused on music, dancing, food, and other events like balls, parades and various performances. The masks and costumes, parties, and the atmosphere of an amazing celebration that can only be felt in Venice

- The "Most Beautiful Mask" competition is one of the main events and focuses of the festival

- This festival still has a few activities that relate to the past, like the masked balls and gambling in noble areas and houses.

Future
- The traditional masks and costumes are a strong part of what the Carnival is that they will remain in the festival and as an important part of history in Venice.

- The makers of carnival masks has become one of the most important businesses in the small historic town “Veneto”

- The Carnival of Venice concept has spread throughout the world and is celebrated in a sense worldwide, with more festivals being created and celebrated every year.

Rio Carnival
The Rio Carnival is held for 5 days starting on a Friday and ending on Fat Tuesday every year. People gather on the streets on Rio de Janeiro to celebrate their last days before Lent (fasting and penitence). The carnival is one of the most famous in the world and is known for the extravagant costumes, dances and floats.
Rio Carnival Assumption
I assume that people enjoy the traditional costumes, decorations, music and dancing of Rio Carnival (sociology)
Research Question
What makes the Rio carnival a memorable and unique experience?
Why does Rio Carnival exist?
The Rio carnival used to represent a period where people of elite class would wear lower class clothing and vice versa. This was to ensure that everyone was able to mingle without fear of being judged. Nowadays, it is a way for people from all lifestyles to come together and party. It also allows Brazilian to express their culture through samba dancing, extravagant costumes and floats.
Past
- Established in 1723

- Originated as Greek spring festival in honor of the god of wine

- Portuguese immigrants from the islands of Açores, Madeira and Cabo Verde went out onto the streets and soaked each other in water and mud causing brawls and riots.

- In the 1800’s, the carnival concept became more organized in terms of costumes, music and dance.

- Mass celebration of indulgences in music, dance, food and drink

- People from Africa passed on the ‘Samba’ dance to the Brazilians during the days of slavery, (Samba is a big part of the Rio carnival)

-People would parade the streets in makeshift costumes and improvised samba songs

Present
- Celebration before Lent

- The main parade is held in the Samabadrome stadium

- Dances a choreographed by samba schools all over Brazil

- Costumes have become a major component in the carnival with people spending as much as 3 million pounds on preparations

- Tourists from around the world come to celebrate the festivities

Future
- Costume and dance will continue to be a big part of the Rio Carnival

- The festival will attract more tourists, and become an even bigger event

Unique Features
- All masks taking part in the carnival are individuals. Only the costumes of couple’s are similar.

- The festival has many public parties, like masked balls where people would dress in costume from the 19th century.

- Today masks are worn as a representation of the Venice Carnival and are decorated in many different ways.


Unique Features
Rio has over 100 samba schools that choreograph dances specifically for the Rio carnival parade. Out of these 100 samba schools, only 12 make it to the special group, which is a place of pride. Some of these Samba schools consist of as many as four thousand participants. These schools also spend up to 3 million pounds of preparations such as costumes and floats.
Mardi Gras
Mardi Gras, from the French meaning ‘Fat Tuesday’, is a carnival and festival hosted in New Orleans annually to celebrate the beginning of Lent. The Mardi Gras season starts on Twelfth Night, January 6th, a day marking the coming of the Epiphany, and goes throughout February and sometimes even to the beginning of March, depending when Easter is that year. The largest day of the season is Mardi Gras or Fat Tuesday, which is always the Tuesday before Ash Wednesday.

The celebrations consists of parades, balls, singing, dancing, music, costumes, food and drinking, with the two weeks leading up to Fat Tuesday being the most rambunctious and packed full of parades and celebrations.

Research Question
What is the motivation behind attendance and what significance does the festival have to attendees?
Past
Present
Future
Venice Carnival
Venice Carnival Assumption
Research Question
Why does Venice Carnival exist?
Past
Present
Future
Impacts on Venice
Impacts on Venice
Rio Carnival
Rio Carnival Assumption
Research Question
Why does Rio Carnival exist?
Around two million people per day take the streets of Brazil and Rio de Janeiro, both tourists and locals. This has a positive impact of the country as it creates a ¼ million of jobs and is said to generate 420 million pounds for local hotels, restaurants and bars.
Impacts on Rio de Janeiro
Impacts on Rio de Janeiro
- The Carnival of Venice attracts a mass of around 4 million tourists each year, which brings a large amount of business into to the city of Venice.

- Mask production has become one of the most profitable industries in Venice. The carnival makes approximately 88 million Euros for the city each year.
Unique Features
Past
Present
Future
Unique Features
Mardi Gras
Mardi Gras Assumption
Research Question
Artifact
Artifact
Artifact
Artifact
Why does Mardi Gras exist?
Artifact
Artifact
Thank you
for watching

- Brought to New Orleans by French colonists in the 1699 as a Christian celebration of the day before Lent

- Masks were used by all to cover race and status so all could mingle together to celebrate. However, violence was a very common risk as many slaves and Indians used this as a chance to enact revenge on wrong doers or rival gangs.

- Mardi Gras was celebrated openly in New Orleans in the 1730s, where elegant balls were held to celebrate.
- Masks are only to be worn by Krewe members, which is a requirement by Mardi Gras law, to hide their identity according to tradition. Crowds are no longer allowed to wear masks, except for on Fat Tuesday, for safety purposes.

- Along with the masked balls still held to this day, free parades have been held since 1857 for all to attend and witness.

- Not a strong focus on the religious origins and purpose of Mardi Gras
- Parades are a strong and cemented tradition in New Orleans now and will continue strong

- Due to the problems caused in past Mardi Gras events of excessive drinking, violence and public debauchery, police presence has been increased over the years. This could continue into the future and create a strain on the fun loving atmosphere on Bourban Street.
Future
Present
Past
Impacts on New Orleans
Impacts on New Orleans
- The biggest impact Mardi Gras has on New Orleans is on its economy. Each year Mardi Gras generates millions of dollars for New Orleans. In 2014 alone, Mardi Gras contributed around $465 million to the New Orleans economy, with New Orleans city making $8.45 for every dollar spent on the event.

- Tourism accounts for around 40% of New Orleans tax revenue so with its excellent reputation for hosting an amazing free event, Mardi Gras keeps the local community and economy going.
Fun Facts
- The motto of Mardi Gras is "Laissez les bons temps rouler" meaning "Let the good times roll".

- The official colours of Mardi Gras, purple, green and gold, were chosen in 1872 to honour Alexis Romanoff, a visiting Grand Duke from Russia. These were his family colours and have been associated with Mardi Gras to this day.

- The anthem of Mardi Gras, "If Ever I Cease to Love", was also chosen to honour the same Duke and has also now been made synonymous with the festival.
Fun Facts
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