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Integumentary System

Integumentary System

Amanda Bell

on 22 February 2011

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Transcript of Integumentary System

Integumentary System 5 Major Functions:
1. Protection
2. sensation
3. synthesis of vitamin D
4. regulates body temp
5. excretion Cutaneous Layer consists of the epidermis and the dermis
also contains hair, nails and exocrine glands Superficial epithelium and is made up of stratified squamous epithelium
Contains no blood vessels and is dependent on diffusion to receive nutrients and to get rid of wastes
The layers are composed of cells called keratinocytes
Dermis Epidermis lies between the epidermis and the sub-cutaneous layers
made of irregular fibrous connective tissue
cllagen provides strength, and elastin provides elasticity Structures of Epidermis: 1. Stratum Germinativum
2. Stratum Corneum
3. Langerhans cells
4. Melanocytes Structures of the Dermis 1. Papillary Layer
2. Hair Follicles
3. Nail Follicles
4. Receptors
5. Glands
6. Arterioles Pigmentation Dermal Circulation pigments appear a certain color because of the wavelength of light that they reflect Red blood cells contain hemoglobin which turns red when it binds with oxygen Pigmentation Carotene Melanin Epidermis and Steroid Protection Keratinocytes in the stratum spinosum and germinativum convert cholesterol into cholecalciferol
Vitamin D3 is converted by the kidneys into calicitriol Subcutaneous Layer Main Functions
1. Stabilize Skin
2. Blood Reservoir
3. Good place for administering drugs
4. Energy Reservoir
5. Provides a cushion and Maintains Heat Accessory Structures These structures begin in the dermis, project through the epidermis, to the integumentary surface
Hair and Follicles Hair Follicle Structure Hair Structure Hair Production Types of Hair mitosis takes place in the hair root; new cells produce keratin, die, and become the hair shaft
hair of the scalp provides insulation
eyelashes keep dust out of eyes
nostril hairs keep dust out of nasal cavities Consists of the hair rootand the shaft
Has 3 layers:
Medula--innermost layer
Cortex--the middle layer
Cuticle---outermost layer The hair papilla nourishes the hair bulb.
The hair bulb makes the cells that produce the hair
The hair matrix (within the hair bulb) is a single layer of cells that produces the cells that make up the hair Vellus Hair--the soft hair that is located all over the body
Terminal Hair--heavy, more deeply pigmented and sometimes curly hair
Vellus Hairs will turn into terminal hairs in response to hormones
Glands of the Skin Sebaceous Glands Sweat Glands secrete sebum into hair follicles or to the skin surface
sebum inhibits the growth of bacteria and prevents drying of hair and skin Apocrine Sweat Glands Eccrine Sweat Glands most numerous on face, palms, soles
activated by external temperature or exercise modified scent glands in axillae and genital areas
activated by stress and emotions Response of Integument to Injury One of the things that separates the integument from the rest of the body is that it can respond directly to injury The reason why it is possible for it to respond is because of the stem cells that are located in the epithelial and connective tissue It does not wait for a signal from the nervous or endocrine systems Example: The formation of calluses in response to hard work Aging in the Integumentary System Epidermal thinning, decreased numbers of Langerhans cells, decreased Vitamin D production, decreased melanocyte activity The integumentary system protects and interacts with all other systems in the body Integration of the Integument with other Systems
Nails made of dead, keratinized cells
protect the ends of fingers and toes, enable the fingers to pick up small objects, and scratching The End By: Sonia Zhang Stratum corneum – outermost layer; cells have died. stratum germinativum-innermost layer; mitosis takes place. phagocytic cells produces melanin;
Melanin absorbs UV light
gives color to skin, hair and eyes many capillaries to nourish the dermis and the stratum germinativum Receptors detect changes in the skin: touch, pressure, heat, cold, itch and pain
sensitivity of the skin depends on the number of receptors present Arterioles smooth muscle permits constriction or dilation
cold = vasoconstriction
warm = vasodialation
stress = vasoconstriction made of: Areolar connective tissue and adipose tissue
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