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Introd to linguistic Sciences: Syntax, heads and phrases

(UNIT 4) chapter 7
by

Inmaculada Pineda

on 15 January 2014

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Transcript of Introd to linguistic Sciences: Syntax, heads and phrases

8.-
Skullet= Skull+mullet
Introduction to Linguistic Sciences
Unit 5 Syntax: Heads ans Phrases
Inmaculada Pineda, PhD
Thank you!
Syntax
pomo= post+modern
modem=modulator+demodulator
spork= spoon+fork
skull
mullet
jag--jagg
memo--memorandum
typo--typographical error
lab--laboratory
gas--gasoline

Nouns
in English are preceded by (a) determiner(s)
0 article
followed by a verb
nouns constitute NPs
Syntactic structure is divided into phrases and each phrase must have a head
Phrase structure is the system of rules that organizes words into larger groups in a sentence.
phrases contain a head (+ constituents)
a word whose syntactic category determines the category of the phrase
all the elements that combine to make a phrase
NP trees
students
some students
all students
NP
NP
NP
N
N
N
D
D
PP
in this class
P
NP
D
N
Verbs
Morphologically: infinitive, present form, past form, present participle, past participle
Syntactically: main, modal auxiliary
verbs constitute VPs
VPs can contain a main vb +3 modal/ aux vbs
modal+aux+aux+main
modal+aux+main
modal+main
aux+aux+main
aux+main
main
VP trees
studies
has studied
should study
should have studied
VP
V
VP
VP
VP
Aux
V
V
V
Aux
Aux
Aux
NP= (D)+ N
VP= (Aux)+ V
VP trees (negation)
does not study
has not studied
VP
V
Aux
VP
V
Aux
not
not
VP= Aux + V
NP = (D)+ (AP) +N+ (AP)+ (PP)
Adjectives
combined with NPs
Degree words
AP= (Deg)+ A
VP= Aux + V+ (AP)
VP= Aux + V+ (XP)
Adverbs
combined with VPs
Degree words
AdvP= (Deg)+ Adv
Prepositions
combined with NPs
Degree words
PP= (Deg)+ P + (XP)
NP = (D)+ (AP) +N+ (AP)+ (XP)
D= that, ten, some the...
VP= Aux + V (XP)
Aux= modal, have, be
AP= (Deg) + A
AdvP= (Deg) + Adv
PP= (Deg) + P + (XP)
Deg= very, so, too, clear
Subject
Predicate
S+V+O
Cl= NP+VP
Clause
Sentence
Clause(s)
Phrase(s)
exercises
Perhaps you can sign on the dotted line
The angry officer questioned us immediately after the concert in London
That student with long hair and a beard plays in our orchestra
Everybody believed the strange story about the ghost
These photos appeared in a magazine for women
With some help you can make your own website

The boy ran out the door with a sticker
Georgia tickled her friend with a feather
Dumbledore greeted the boy with a smile
Leo was watching the girl from the café
I got my red dress on tonight
Dancing in the dark in the pale moonlight
Done my hair up real big, beauty queen style
High heels off. I'm feeling alive

I've got that summertime summertime sadness
S-s-summertime, summertime sadness
Got that summertime summertime sadness
Oh, oh, oh, oh, oh
NO AMBIGUITY
WITH AMBIGUITY
The girl with the curly red hair surprised everybody
Hagrid will feed his pet dragon in the morning
Mary sent her friends a parcel for Christmas
They are discouraging students
Marta is a very kind and efficient student
My mother has baked potatoes for dinner
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