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John Ogilvie High School
Transcript of John Ogilvie High School
St. John Ogilvie
To develop your knowledge and understanding of
Social & Cultural influences on music styles
Aims of the course:
By the end you should be able to:
Identify musical concepts and styles when listening to music
Identify social and cultural influences
Identifying and recognise the meaning of music signs, symbols and terms
How will you be assessed?
End of unit tests
Homework tasks & Classwork
A research project based on a topic of your choice.
The concepts covered in this course will be at National 4 level HOWEVER you will also need to know the concepts and work covered in the National 3 course!
Time to get started!
WORLD & 20th Century music
Work with a partner to decide what instrument you can hear in the following examples!
A SCOTS BALLAD is a Scottish Song which tells a story. The form is STROPHIC, this means the music for each verse is the same!
What is the tempo of this music?
What instruments can you hear?
(Puirt a Beul)
This is a Gaelic song used for dancing. When instruments were banned from Scotland people created mouth music to dance to made up of nonsense words!
Bagpipes and the
The large pipes at the top of the bagpipes are called drones.
They play a long held low note.
A long held low note is called a
1) How many beats in the bar does a reel have?
2) Is a reel a fast or slow dance?
A Jig is a fast dance in Compound Time.
Try saying 'strawberry' along with the beat to help you identify compound time
The music has two, three or four beats in each bar, and each beat is a crotchet (1 beat note) and each beat can be divided into 2.
The beat is divided into groups of three – if you say 'strawberry' as you listen to compound time music, the three syllables fit within each beat.
The Pentatonic Scale
Traditionally Scottish music was written using the pentatonic scale. The pentatonic scale is a scale that uses 5 notes.
Task 7 - compose a 4 bar melody at a keyboard or tuned percussion instrument using only notes from the Pentatonic scale!
1. What is the time signature of the music?
2. What Italian word would you use to describe the tempo?
1) How many beats in the bar does a waltz have?
2) Is a waltz a fast or slow dance?
1) How many beats in the bar does a march have?
2) Is a waltz a fast or slow dance?
N4 - Strathspey
N4 - Jig
A Strathspey is a steady dance with four beats in the bar. It features dotted rhythms known as the SCOTCH SNAP.
A very short accented note before a longer note.
Listen to the following example and circle the scotch snaps you see and hear.
How many scotch snaps are there in total? ___
Task five B:
Join the notes in each bar into groups of two or three to make simple time or compound time. Remember to look at the time signature!
A rhythmic accompaniment with a bass note played on the beat and a chord off the beat. Usually played on piano, accordion or guitar.
The Vocal Ranges
Soprano - high female
Alto - low female
Tenor - high male
Bass - low male
Listen to the following examples
and in pairs identify the type of voice you hear.
N3 - Musical
a musical is a story put to music in English which is accompanied by an orchestra.
Listen to the song 'Popular' from the music Wicked.
type of voice
does the singer have?
you can hear.
3. Is the music
An Opera is a story put to music sung in Italian and accompanied by an orchestra.
N4 - Opera
Listen to this excerpt which is from the famous opera 'La Traviata'.
1) What language do you think they are singing in?
2) What type of voice is the male singer?
3) What type of voice is the female singer?
4) Answer the additional questions in your booklet.
Notes which appear before the first strong beat of a musical phrase, particularly at the start of a piece.
Another example of music with an anacrusis is the song 'Happy Birthday'
A melodic phrase which is immediately repeated at a higher or lower pitch.
Rhyming lyrics that are spoken and performed in time to a beat. Rapping is popular in hip-hop music.
Listen to the song Gangster's Paradise:
Listen out for
in the chorus!
Task 4: Describe Rapping in your booklet.
Task 5: Listen again to the song Gangster's Paradise and think about the structure of the song. Then fill in the blanks.
It is made up of V________ and Ch__________.
Listen to the following examples and identify what dance you hear.
The Baroque Period
Baroque is the name given to a style of music composed during a particular period,
describes music, art and architecture of a certain period in history.
The music, like the art, was usually highly decorated and very ornate (fancy!). The music included lots of ornaments!
It was often written for the Church or Royalty.
With a partner discuss why the church and royalty might influenced music of this time?
The Baroque Period - Social and Historical Background
Task 1: Watch the video and answer the questions in your booklet.
Early keyboard instrument
Similar to piano
Strings are plucked NOT hit by hammers like the piano
Watch the video and
answer the questions in your booklet.
The baroque orchestra was quite small.
Let's have a look at the instruments that were used and answer the questions in your booklet.
A work for solo instrument and orchestra, eg a flute concerto is written for flute and orchestra. It is normally in three movements.
Listen to the famous
concerto by Vivaldi
in the video and
answer the questions in your booklet.
Strict imitation. Once one part starts to play or sing a melody, another part enters shortly afterwards with exactly the same melody. Frere Jacques is often sung this way.
Listen to the piece
Pachelbel's Canon and answer the questions in your booklet.
Try singing this with your class!
A pedal is a long held note in the bass with changing harmonies above.
Can you think of another concept we use to describe a long held note?
An ornament decorates a melody by adding extra notes. Ornaments are often short and add melodic and rhythmic interest.
can also be the same note repeated in the bass.
Listen to this example of a repeated pedal - it only lasts for the first bar so listen carefully!
Task 9: Composition!
Try writing a pedal into a short composition in your booklet!
Broken Chord and Arpeggio
Change of Key
The Romantic Period
In music, the period 1810-1900 approximately, which followed the Baroque and Classical era.
The Romantic orchestra grew in size and added
more varied percussion
Berlioz, Chopin and Schumann
are composers from the Romantic Period.
Watch the video and answer the questions in your booklet.
The Romantic Period
Composers in the Romantic period wanted their music to be more expressive.
They wrote longer pieces, dramatic operas and passionate songs.
Solo's in the romantic period were extremely elaborate and showed of performers skills!
Task 1: Listen to this piece of romantic music then discuss the following with a partner:
How would you describe this piece of music?
(Hint: Think about what makes it dramatic!)
In an arpeggio, the notes of a chord are played one after another.
1) Using the chord of C major (C-E-G), go to your instrument and try to play a broken chord or arpeggio!
2) Now try writing an example of an arpeggio using the chord of C following the steps in your booklet.
A move from one key to another.
Listen to this example of key changes in popular music. It should feel like the music has shifted gear!
Now listen to a key change in an example of romantic music.
This piece is by Chopin. It begins in a minor key and modulates to a major key.
Answer the questions about this piece in your booklet.
The tempo (speed) of the music gradually slows down.
The tempo (speed) of the music gradually becomes faster.
Listen to the end of this nocturne by Chopin.
Listen to this well known piece by Grieg.
Swing & Ragtime
Traditional pan pipes are hollow tubes made from bamboo or wood, and bound together.
The tubes are of varying length which gives different pitches of notes
The sound is produced by blowing air across the top of the tubes.
A lot of African music features voices and/or African drums.
Discuss with a partner why traditional African music uses a lot of drumming and singing.
A style of dance music which became popular at the end of the 19th century and which helped to influence jazz.
strongly syncopated melody
often played on piano,
A jazz style which started in the 1930s and was performed by a big band.
Big band used more instruments than jazz music before it.
a) Describe Panpipes in your booklet.
b) Name any other instruments you can hear in this example.
Listen to this example of swing and write down any instruments you can see or hear.
Read below and fill in the blanks in your booklet.
Now Listen to Beyonce do a swing version of her song Deja Vu.
She uses Scat Singing. This is when a singer improvises nonsense words, syllables and sounds to create a melody.
Describe Ragtime in your booklet.
Name the four families of the orchestra and one instrument from each one.
A wind band is a large ensemble which includes
a large ensemble which includes
Listen to this example and name as many instruments that you can hear as you can!
Listen to this example and answer the questions in your booklet.
When a song has the same music for each verse the structure is known as
However a song can have other sections including:
Listen to the following example from the beginning until 2mins 47s.
Put the sections of the song in the correct order.
You can choose from
Intro, Verse, Chorus and Middle 8.
In popular music, a section which provides a contrast to the opening section. It is often eight bars long.
Intro - Instrumental
verse 1 - We're caught in a trap
verse 2 - Why can't you see
chorus - We can't go on together
verse 3 - So, if an old friend I know
verse 4 - Here we go again
middle 8 - Oh, let our love survive
verse 5 - We're Caught in a Trap
verse 6 - Why can't you see
a) What is the time signature of this piece?
b) What is the tonality of this piece? (major or minor?)
c) What is the tempo of this piece?
Listen to the following examples and tick one box to describe what you hear.
Describe what a pedal is in your booklet.
Describe Rallentando and Accelerando in your booklet.
The concerto continued to develop throughout the years and eventually included a section called a
This was a passage of music which allowed the soloist to show off and play a solo without the orchestra!
Describe what a cadenza is in your booklet.
Theme and Variations
The structure of a piece where the melody is heard (this is the theme), then returns several times with variations (changes).
Look at the example of the theme and variation in your booklet and describe the difference between them!
Task 5 2a