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The Crusades

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Lisa Healow

on 28 September 2014

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Transcript of The Crusades

The Crusades
1088 - Pope Urban II comes into power during a time of infighting within the Church
30 years earlier the eastern branch of the Catholic Church had completely broken off (Schism of 1054)
Urban was looking for a way to consolidate power and unify the Church
Early Problems
Crusades: a series of religious wars fought by European Christians between 1095-1291 with the goal of taking the Holy Land from various Muslim groups
Holy Land: Jerusalem (in present-day Israel) and its surrounding areas; sacred to the three main monotheistic religions
Christians - place where Jesus was crucified and buried
Jews - location of the Holy Temple (ancient worship sight)
Muslims - location of the Dome of the Rock (sacred site)
Late 1000s - Holy Land was under control of the Fatimids, a group of North African Muslims
1071 - Turkish Muslims destroyed Byzantine Empire army in the Battle of Manzikert.
Byzantine Emperor Michael VII feared the fall of Constantinople and turned to Pope Urban II for help
Power of the Pope
Council of Clermont
1096 - First Crusade: Crusaders took Jerusalem and created four Crusader States out of the Holy Land - Jerusalem, Edessa, Antioch, Tripoli
1147 - Second Crusade: after Muslims recaptured Jerusalem, Crusaders were unsuccessful
1189 - Third Crusade: Saladin v. King Richard the Lionhearted, no land exchanged hands
1201 - Fourth Crusade
Ninth Crusade ended in 1291 - Muslims had completely driven Christians out of Holy Land
The Crusades
Enhanced and increased trade between Europe and the Middle East
Intolerance on all sides
1049 - Pope Leo IX set out to reform the papacy by getting rid of simony - the buying and selling of church offices - and excommunicating corrupt bishops
Following Leo’s reign as pope, papal power increased both religiously and politically:
ecclesiastical, or church, courts heard cases on religious and moral matters
popes ruled territory, such as the papal states in Italy
popes could raise armies to defend their territories and fight wars on their behalf
November 1095 - Pope Urban II called church leaders to a council in Clermont, France - called on Christian warriors to fight against the invaders
Christians were inspired to fight against the Muslims because they were promised indulgences: pardons issued by the pope that people could buy to reduce a soul’s time in purgatory
Indulgences were also a way to fund the Crusades
Full transcript