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Transcript of Fundamental Particles
About 150 Mesons.
Van de Graaff
Created one of the earliest particle accelerators. (1929)
Particle accelerators are based off his machine.
Electric charge of the tubes alternate.
But what are elementary particles?
Whats the Matter... QUARKS!
"Anyone who is not shocked by quantum theory has not understood it."
Unification of Forces
Explains how elementary particles interact and how the four fundamental forces control the interactions.
One of the two classes of elemetary particles.
Makes up a lot of the physical matter.
Any elementary particle that has a half integer value for its quantum spin.
Composite Fermions and Elementary Fermions
Particles that are not influenced by the strong force.
Small or thin in greek.
1948 Leon Rosenfeld came up with the term Lepton.
There are six known Leptons.
Created during beta decay.
Explains missing energy.
Neutrino means "little neutral one".
Hardly interact with matter.
Particles that hold the nucleus together.
Are affected by the strong force.
Hadrons are made up of quarks.
Made up of three quarks.
Exist for less than a millionth of a second.
Protons and neutrons are Baryons.
Even number of anti-quarks and quarks.
Most have extremely short lifespans.
Two categories of accelerators; linear and circular.
Mesons cannot be observed directly.
K Mesons (Kaon)
Zero spin, non-zero strangeness, and mass of 494 MeV.
Made up of "up" anti-quark and "strange" quark.
K Mesons have a longer life-span.
K+, K- and K-0.
It can be observed because lifespan is long.
A particle is introduced to a series of electrical fields which increase the velocity of the particles.
(also known as LINAC)
Reversing the electrical fields pushes the electron forward.
Quantum spin is impossible to visualize.
Particles spinning about their own axis.
Direction of spin is a superposition.
Crucial difference between fermions and bosons.
Represents how quarks and gluons interact.
Linacs are limited to physical constraints.
A charged particle passes through a magnetic field and travels in a curved path.
Foundation for electricity.
Shape of curved path is determined by velocity and magnetic field strength.
Almost no mass.
billions move/s in our body.
Two in a proton, one in a neutron.
Two in a neutron, one in a proton.
Heavier than electron.
Exists for one, two millionth of a second.
Comes into existence with muons.
Heavier than "up".
Heavier than "down".
Heavier than Muon.
Heavier than "charm".
Heavier than "strange".
Quarks make up the stable part of matter.
Only particle affected by all four forces.
Quarks are always found together in baryons and mesons and never alone.
Six quarks are known to exist.
Binds nucleus together.
Regulates interaction between mesons and baryons.
Allows nucleus to have many protons.
Associated Boson = Gluon.
Associated Bosons = W+, W-, and Z.
Explains beta decay.
Matter interactions with neutrino.
Every particle is affected by the weak force.
The force particles.
Quantum spin is an integer value.
Does not follow PEP.
Intermediate Vector Bosons
Natural force of attraction between particles that have mass.
Electric force and Magnetic Force combined.
How those two forces interact with each other.
Gravitational Force Particle.
Not discovered yet.
Holds two colour charges.
8 different types of gluons.
No free gluons.
W+, W- and Z Bosons.
Responsible for the weak force.
All three bosons must be available.
Still a theory.
All four forces are part of a single force.
Electroweak interaction is the first step.
Very different from Fermions.
Strong interaction between Quarks and Gluons.
Quantum Chromo-Dymanics is the theory behind colour charge
A colour field binds quarks together once gluons are exchanged.
Colour charges change as gluons are exchanged.
THE HIGGS BOSON
Theorized since 1964
Non zero vacuum value in the Higgs Field
GIVES MASS TO PARTICLES
March 2013 CERN declares existence of Higgs Boson
Initially created to study the basic structure of matter.
Devices made to increase the velocity of subatomic particles.
Characteristics of Particles
Solves the problem linacs have.