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Fundamental Particles

Franky C, Giordano F, Spencer D.
by

Paolo Furgiuele

on 7 April 2015

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Transcript of Fundamental Particles

Parity
Baryon Number
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About 150 Mesons.
Van de Graaff
Created one of the earliest particle accelerators. (1929)
Particle accelerators are based off his machine.
Electric charge of the tubes alternate.
But what are elementary particles?
Fundamental Particles
Elementary Particles
Matter
Atom
Nucleus
Electron
Proton
Neutron
Daf-Qu
Quantum Theory
Standard Model
Neutrino
Fermions
Quarks
Leptons
Gravity
Electromagnetism
Weak Interaction
Strong Interaction
Phour
Phundamental
Phorces
Whats the Matter... QUARKS!
Bosons
"Anyone who is not shocked by quantum theory has not understood it."
Niels Bohr
Unification of Forces
Composite Particles
Leptons
Explains how elementary particles interact and how the four fundamental forces control the interactions.
One of the two classes of elemetary particles.
Makes up a lot of the physical matter.
Any elementary particle that has a half integer value for its quantum spin.
Stellar Nucleosynthesis.
Composite Fermions and Elementary Fermions
Particles that are not influenced by the strong force.
Small or thin in greek.
1948 Leon Rosenfeld came up with the term Lepton.
There are six known Leptons.
Created during beta decay.
Explains missing energy.
Neutrino means "little neutral one".
Hardly interact with matter.
Hadrons
Particles that hold the nucleus together.
Are affected by the strong force.
Hadrons are made up of quarks.
Baryons
Mesons
Made up of three quarks.
Exist for less than a millionth of a second.
Protons and neutrons are Baryons.
Even number of anti-quarks and quarks.
Most have extremely short lifespans.
Particle Accelerators
Two categories of accelerators; linear and circular.
Mesons cannot be observed directly.
K Mesons (Kaon)
Zero spin, non-zero strangeness, and mass of 494 MeV.
Made up of "up" anti-quark and "strange" quark.
K Mesons have a longer life-span.
K+, K- and K-0.
It can be observed because lifespan is long.
Mass
Linear Accelerators
A particle is introduced to a series of electrical fields which increase the velocity of the particles.
(also known as LINAC)
Colour charge
Quantum Spin
Reversing the electrical fields pushes the electron forward.
Quantum Spin
Quantum spin is impossible to visualize.
Particles spinning about their own axis.
Direction of spin is a superposition.
Crucial difference between fermions and bosons.
Colour Charge
Represents how quarks and gluons interact.
Three Families
Electron-like
Muon-Like
Tau-Like
Circular Accelerators
Linacs are limited to physical constraints.
Leptons
A charged particle passes through a magnetic field and travels in a curved path.
Electron

Charge: -1
Foundation for electricity.
Shape of curved path is determined by velocity and magnetic field strength.
Electron-neutrino
Charge: 0
Almost no mass.
billions move/s in our body.
Quarks
Quark-up
Charge: +2/3
Two in a proton, one in a neutron.
Quark-down
Charge: -1/3
Two in a neutron, one in a proton.
Leptons
Muon

Charge: -1
Heavier than electron.
Exists for one, two millionth of a second.
Muon-neutrino
Charge: 0
Comes into existence with muons.
Quarks
Quark-charm
Charge: +2/3
Heavier than "up".
Quark-strange
Charge: -1/3
Heavier than "down".
Leptons
Tau

Charge: -1
Heavier than Muon.
Unstable.
Tau-neutrino
Not discovered.
Quarks
Quark-top
Charge: +2/3
Heavier than "charm".
Quark-bottom
Charge: -1/3
Heavier than "strange".
Quarks make up the stable part of matter.
Only particle affected by all four forces.
Quarks are always found together in baryons and mesons and never alone.
Six quarks are known to exist.
Binds nucleus together.
Regulates interaction between mesons and baryons.
Allows nucleus to have many protons.
Associated Boson = Gluon.
Associated Bosons = W+, W-, and Z.
Explains beta decay.
Matter interactions with neutrino.
Every particle is affected by the weak force.
The force particles.
Quantum spin is an integer value.
Does not follow PEP.
Photon
Graviton
Intermediate Vector Bosons
Natural force of attraction between particles that have mass.
Gluon
Electric force and Magnetic Force combined.
How those two forces interact with each other.
Light particles.
Electromagnetic Force.
Wave-particle duality.
Gravitational Force Particle.
Not discovered yet.
Strong Interaction.
Holds two colour charges.
Quark Attraction.
8 different types of gluons.
No free gluons.
W+, W- and Z Bosons.
Responsible for the weak force.
All three bosons must be available.
Still a theory.
All four forces are part of a single force.
Electroweak interaction is the first step.
Quantum gravity.
Very different from Fermions.
Quantum Chromo-Dynamics
Strong interaction between Quarks and Gluons.
Quantum Chromo-Dymanics is the theory behind colour charge
A colour field binds quarks together once gluons are exchanged.

Colour charges change as gluons are exchanged.
Research Today
Bose-Einstein Condensation
Quantum Computer
Quantum Entanglement
Theory Development
Quantum Teleportation
THE HIGGS BOSON
Theorized since 1964
Non zero vacuum value in the Higgs Field
GIVES MASS TO PARTICLES
March 2013 CERN declares existence of Higgs Boson
Quantum Tunneling
Medicine
Electric Charge
Hypercharge
Initially created to study the basic structure of matter.
Devices made to increase the velocity of subatomic particles.
Strangeness
Characteristics of Particles
Proton
Neutron
Solves the problem linacs have.
+1
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