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Chapter 2.1 Describing Matter

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Cassandra Schmidt

on 18 October 2013

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Transcript of Chapter 2.1 Describing Matter

2.1 Describing Matter
Properties of Matter
Elements
(W) Chemistry - the study of the properties of matter and how matter changes

The properties and changes of any matter depend on its make up. Matter is either a substance or a mixture.

Compounds:
(W) matter - anything that has mass and takes up space

Matter can have many different characteristics.

The states of mater are: liquids, solids, gasses, and plasma.
Every form of matter has two kinds of properties- physical and chemical.

(W) We use physical and chemical properties to classify substances.
(W) Physical Properties - a characteristic of a pure substance that can be observed without changing into another substance.

Examples:
Solid, liquid, or gas.
Freezing point, melting point, boiling point, hardness, appearance, texture, color, odor, and density.
Does it dissolve in water?
Is it magnetic?
Flexibility?
Ripping or crumpling paper
Texture
Physical Properties
Chemical Properties
(W) chemical properties - a characteristic of a pure substance that describes its ability to change into different substances.

To observe chemical properties of a substance, you must try to change it to another substance

Examples:
Flammability
Ability to rust
reaction to rust
Rotting
Burning
Now think,
Look at Figure 3 on page 37. For each example, write down what the substance was before, and what the new substance became. (discuss with a partner)
In your notes: How do chemical properties differ from physical properties?

(W) Matter is made from more than 100 substances called elements
(we know of 118 chemical elements currently)

(W) an element is a pure substance that cannot be broken down into any other substances by chemical or physical means.


Examples of elements:
aluminum, zinc, copper,
oxygen, nitrogen, carbon,
hydrogen......
Particles of Elements - Atoms

(W) An atom is the basic particle from which all elements are made.

Different elements have different properties because their atoms are different.

(W) Atoms are made up of even smaller parts: a nucleus, electrons, protons, and neutrons.
When atoms combine they form a chemical bond.

(W) A chemical bond is a force of attraction between two atoms.

(W) Atoms combine to form larger particles called molecules - groups of two or more atoms held together with chemical bonds.
The 8 most common elements in Earth’s crust (by mass):
46.6% Oxygen (O)
27.7% Silicon (Si)
8.1% Aluminum (Al)
5.0% Iron (Fe)
3.6% Calcium (Ca)
2.8% Sodium (Na)
2.6% Potassium (K)
2.1% Magnesium (Mg)
Elements in the atmosphere:
Nitrogen (78%)
Oxygen (20%-21%)
Trace Gases (1%-2%):
Argon - 0.93 percent
Carbon Dioxide - 0.036 percent
Neon - 0.00182 percent
Helium - 0.000524 percent
Methane - 0.00015 percent
Krypton - 0.000114 percent
Hydrogen - 0.00005 percent
What is matter made of?
Is there anything smaller than an element?
So, you might ask yourself.....
Yes, an atom.
What is the difference between a compound and a molecule?

A molecule is formed when two or more atoms join together chemically. A compound is a molecule that contains at least two different elements. All compounds are molecules but not all molecules are compounds.
(W) A compound is a pure substance made of two or more elements chemically combined in a set ratio.

(W) A compound may be represented with a chemical formula, which shows the elements in the compound and the ratio of atoms.
All of these are molecules, but only the ones in the bottom row are compounds.
Molecular hydrogen (H2), molecular oxygen (O2) and molecular nitrogen (N2) are not compounds because each is composed of a single element.

Water (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) are compounds because each is made from more than one element.
In other words....
The sugar molecule glucose has 6 carbon atoms, 12 hydrogen atoms and 6 oxygen atoms, so its chemical formula is
C H O
6 12 6
Mixtures
(W) A mixture is made from two or more substances (elements, compounds, or both) that are together in the same place, but are not chemically combined.


Each substance in a mixture keeps its individual properties. Also, the parts of a mixture are not combined in a set ratio.
How are mixtures different from compounds?
When elements are chemically combined, they form compounds having properties that are different from those of the uncombined elements.
CaCO
3
Ca
C
O
2
(W)A mixture can be heterogeneous or Homogenous:
(W) In heterogeneous, you can see the different parts.

Examples salad, soil, sandy water, orange juice with pulp, trail mix.
(W) In homogeneous, everything is so evenly mixed, you cannot see the different parts.

Examples: brewed tea or coffee, salt water, soapy water, air, lemonade, gun powder, vinegar.
Separating Mixtures
Before we start: For 30 seconds, write down everything you know about matter.
The Human Body:
Oxygen (65%)
Carbon (18%)
Hydrogen (10%)
Nitrogen (3%)
Calcium (1.5%)
Phosphorus (1.0%)
Potassium (0.35%)
Sulfur (0.25%)
Sodium (0.15%)
Magnesium (0.05%)
Copper, Zinc, Selenium, Molybdenum, Fluorine, Chlorine, Iodine, Manganese, Cobalt, Iron (0.70%)
Lithium, Strontium, Aluminum, Silicon, Lead, Vanadium, Arsenic, Bromine (trace amounts)
In your own words, describe the relationship between matter, elements, atoms, and molecules.
In your own words, what is the difference between a compound and an element?
Now, think about the topics we talked about today (matter, atoms, molecules, compounds, and mixtures). For one minute, write down a summary of today's lecture.
Write down a fact about elements that you found surprising.
(W) Substance - a single kind of matter that is
pure
meaning that it has a
specific
set of properties.

(W) Mixture - made up of two or more substances that are in the same place, but are not chemically bound
Take out your pencil bag.
Empty its contents on your desk.
Examine the objects and then sort them at least 3 groups.
Describe the differences between the groups.
make a list of the characteristics of each sorted group.

A pure substance is made up of one type of particle or atom.

Elements are the simplest substances. Each element is made entirely from one type of atom.
The four most common elements that make up living organisms are:
Oxygen
Hydrogen
Carbon
Nitrogen
Write down an example of a physical property and a chemical property from the video
Full transcript