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Ancient Rome & Early Christianity
Transcript of Ancient Rome & Early Christianity
Ancient Rome & Early Christianity
The Early Republic
The Republic Collapses
The Roman World
emphasized discipline, strength, & loyalty
Christianity Spreads Through The Empire
despite political and religious opposition, Christianity spread throughout the empire
fighting three rivals for leadership of Rome
Early Christian Church
1000 - 500 B.C.
750 - 600 B.C.
Rome (753 B.C.)
Twelve Tables (451 B.C.)
built on seven rolling hills at a curve on the Tiber River
Tarquin the Proud
a harsh tyrant driven from power...
important plebeian victory...
First written law code of Rome
free citizens had a right to the protection of the law
: a form of government in which power rests with citizens who have the right to vote for their leaders
Patricians vs. Plebeians
common farmers, artisans, merchants
: Plebeian Assembly
serve for ONE year
aristocratic branch of government
serve for life
serve for life
serve for life
makes laws for the common people
commanded the army
directed the government
legislative & administrative functions
citizens who owned land were required to serve
: large military units
5,000 heavily armed foot soldiers
a group of soldiers on horseback (cavalry)
divided into smaller groups of 80 men (century)
Latins became full citizens
conquered people enjoyed all the rights of Roman citizenship except the vote
other conquered groups became allies of Rome
264 B.C. - 146 B.C.
Battle of Cannae
Battle for Control of Sicily & W. Mediterranean
ends in the defeat of Carthage...
First Punic War
(264 - 241 BC)
Rome lays Siege to Carthage
Rome set fire to the city and sold its inhabitants into slavery...
Third Punic War
Battle with Hannibal
Hannibal attacks Rome (218 BC)
Victory at Cannae (216 BC)
Second Punic War
(218 - 202 BC)
50,000 infantry, 9,000 cavalry, 60 elephants
Scipio attacks Carthage (202 B.C.)
defeated Hannibal at Zama near Carthage
expanding borders brought problems...
growing discontent among the lower classes
the gap between the rich and poor grew wider
enslaved people made up 1/3 of Rome's population
urban poor totaled 1/4 of Roman society
Tiberius & Gaius
proposed reforms to help the poor...
generals began seizing power for themselves
Julius Caesar Takes Control
- First Triumvirate (
Crassus, Caesar, & Pompey
58 - 50 B.C.
- Governor of Gaul
led his armies to conquer ALL of Gaul
- Caesar ordered to disband his legions
January 10, 49 B.C.
- Caesar took his army across the Rubicon
defeated Pompey's armies...
- Caesar named dictator for life
granted roman citizenship...
expanded the Senate...
helped the poor by creating jobs...
started new colonies...
increased the pay of soldiers...
March 15, 44 B.C. - Caesar assassinated by Senators led by Marcus Brutus & Gaius Cassius
Beginning of the Empire
After Caesar's death, civil war broke out that would end the Roman Republic
Octavian - Mark Antony - Lepidus
Rome was now an empire ruled by ONE man...
the beginning of a period known as
stabilized the frontiers
glorified Rome with splendid public buildings
created efficient government
created a civil service
27 B.C. - A.D. 180
honored strength over beauty, power over grace, usefulness over elegance
Slaves & Captivity
Gods & Goddesses
Society & Culture
slavery was a significant part of Roman life
may have reached 1/3 of the total population
early Romans worshipped powerful spirits or divine forces, called
government & religion were mixed (
Jupiter (father of the gods)
Juno (Wife of Jupiter)
Minerva (goddess of wisdom)
wealth & social status determined how you lived
much of the city population was unemployed
the government provided games, races, mock battles, & gladiator contests
Caligula (37 - 41 A.D.)
Nero (54 - 68 A.D.)
Domitian (81 - 96 A.D.)
Nerva (96 - 98 A.D.)
Trajan (98 - 117 A.D.)
Hadrian (117 - 138 A.D.)
Antoninus Pius (138 - 161 A. D.)
Marcus Aurelias (161 - 180 A.D.)
The Life & Teachings of Jesus
Rome took control of the Jewish Kingdom in A.D. 6
Jesus of Nazareth
c. 6 - 4 B.C. a Jew named Jesus was born in Bethlehem
At age 30, he began his public ministry
emphasized God's personal relationship to each human being
stressed the importance of people's love for God, their neighbors, their enemies, and even themselves
taught that God would end wickedness in the world
would establish an eternal kingdom for those who repented their sins
29 A.D. - enthusiastic crowds greeted him as the Messiah (the one who would rescue the Jews)
Pontius Pilate accused Jesus of defying Roman authority
arrested and sentenced him to be crucified
wrote influential letters (epistles) to believers
stressed that Jesus was the son of God who died for people's sins
Christianity should welcome
A.D. 66 - Jews rebelled against Rome
A.D. 70 - Romans storm Jerusalem and destroy the Temple complex
A.D. 73 - Jewish fortress Masada falls (1/2 million Jews killed)
A.D. 132 - another 1/2 million Jews die in three years of fighting
: Jews are driven from their homeland
Persecution of Christians
Christians refused to worship Roman gods
refusal was seen as opposition to Roman rule
Romans exiled, imprisoned, or executed Christians for refusing to worship Roman deities
3rd Century A.D. - Millions of Christians
gave hope to the hopeless
appealed to those who were disgusted with Roman extravagance
offered a personal relationship with a loving God
promised eternal life after death
Battle at Milvian Bridge
Edict of Milan (A.D. 313)
declared Christianity an approved religion
(supervised several churches)
(father of the Christian Church)
disagreements about beliefs developed among followers
four gospels, the epistles of Paul, and other documents...
A.D. 325 - Council of Nicaea
defined the beliefs of the Church
St. Augustine of Hippo
humans needed the grace of god to be saved
Century of Crisis
hostile tribes & pirates disrupted trade
suffered from inflation (drop in the value of money)
overworked soil lost its fertility
soldiers became less disciplined and loyal
began using mercenaries (paid foreign soldiers)
Roman Economy Weakens
A.D. 284 - briefly restored order to the empire
doubled the size of the army
fixed prices to control inflation
divided the empire into
A.D. 324 -
secured control of the East restoring single rule
A.D. 330 -
moved the capital from Rome to Byzantium
Western Empire Crumbles
A.D. 370 - Mongol Nomads (Huns) move into the region
A.D. 444 - Attila the Hun begins terrorizing the Eastern & Western empires
A.D. 410, the Visigoths, led by Alaric, breached the walls of Rome and sacked the capital of the Roman Empire
A.D. 476 Romulus, the last of the Roman emperors in the west, was overthrown by the Germanic leader Odoacer
Rome & the Roots of Western Civilization
: mixing of elements of Greek, Hellenistic, & Roman culture
Roman Fine Arts
Roman art was practical in purpose...
developed a type of sculpture called bas-relief
artists were skilled in creating mosaics
: spent 10 years writing the most famous work of Latin literature, the
(epic of Aeneas)
: compiled a multivolume history of Rome
about the good and bad of imperial Rome
: designed to bring water to Rome
developed into French, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, and Romanian
built a vast network of roads constructed of stone, concrete, & sand
All persons had the right to equal treatment under the law
A person was considered innocent until proven guilty
The burden of proof rested with the accuser rather than the accused
A person should be punished only for actions, not thoughts
Any law that seemed unreasonable or unfair could be set aside