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Sigmund Freud

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Vivian Ho

on 24 January 2013

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Transcript of Sigmund Freud

Unconscious Versus Conscious Id, Ego, Superego Life and Death Instincts Sigmund Freud believed that human behaviors were influenced by drives or instincts, which is the representation of physical needs. Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) Freud's father was a wool merchant and his mother was a lively woman.
He has two older brothers and six younger siblings.
He moved to Vienna at the age of four and resided there for most of his life.
He was the director of a children’s ward in Berlin and was able to set up a practice in neuropsychiatry when he moved back to Vienna.
Freud immigrated to England before World War II and died of cancer from the mouth and jaw after suffering for the last twenty years of his life. Freud's Theories and Influences Definition:
The conscious mind is what a person is aware of at any particular time, your perceptions, memories, thoughts, fantasies, and feelings. Two smallest parts of the mind

The preconscious is related to the conscious in that it can readily bring to mind the memories a person is not thinking about at the moment. Unconscious Conscious Definition:
The largest part is the unconscious which includes all things that are not easily accessible, including drives and instincts, and things that people cannot bear to look at them, such as traumatic memories and emotions. Source of our motivations
Humans are driven to deny or resist these motives
Acts as a storage of unwanted needs or memories.
Innocent behavior can give away clues about unconscious desires.
Psychosexual Phases Freudian psychological reality begins with the world. Id Definition:
The part of the mind in which innate instinctive impulses and primary processes are manifest. The nervous system, id, metamorphosizes the organism’s needs to forces, which is called Triebe, which translates to instincts or drives.

The transition from need to wish is called the primary process.

The id is pure in that it does not know what it “needs” but it knows what it wants and when the organism wants it.

The id relates to the pleasure principle Ego Definition:The part of the mind that mediates between the conscious and the unconscious and is responsible for reality testing and a sense of personal identity The need will only get stronger and the wishes keep coming.
It demands more and more of your attention, until one is unable to think about anything else
This is the wish or drive breaking into the consciousness as one becomes more aware of his or her wishes. Superego Definition:The part of a person's mind that acts as a self-critical conscience, reflecting social standards learned from parents and teachers. The discrepancy between the id, ego, and superego is the conflict between the claims of society and the individual.
Civilization is dominated by frustration and denial, and Freud claims that society is so advanced today due to sexual energy.
Tries to suppress any urges or desires that is socially unacceptable
Forces the ego to act morally rather than realistically. Life Instincts
The life of the individual by motivating him or her to seek basic necessities of life, such as food and water.
Sustaining the life of species by motivating him or her to commit sexual intercourse.
They are the motivational energy of these life instincts that Freud called the libido, from the Latin word for “I desire.” Death Instincts Freud began to think that “under” the life instinct, there was the death instinct.

He believes that every person has an unconscious wish to die.

Life can be an exhausting process and for the majority of people in the world, life is more painful than pleasurable.

Undoubtedly, death releases the painful struggles of life. Anal Phase Phallic Stage Latency Phase: Oral Phase What does it mean? Definition 0-2 years of age

All desires oriented toward the mouth Infants will use the mouth to feed, suck, and bite.

During feeding time, infants will be happy and warm. Purpose Baby should become independent.
The baby knows that the mother will take care of them.
Mother builds a trust will the baby.
As the sexual wishes directed to your mother grow in intensity, you became possessive of your mother and secretly wished your father out of the picture (The Oedipus Complex) Definition What does it mean? Purpose 2-4 years of age
Split between active and passive impulses Infants will learn toilet training:
to establish freedom
Bodily control
self- control Infant has a sense of independence and accomplishment Infants should learn bodily control and learn how to use the bathroom on their own. Moms encourage the infants to potty train and help children feel productive and capable. Conflicts Impulse to mastery


Impulse to scopophilia Anal-expulsive Anal-retentive Definition What does it mean? Purpose 5-6 years old

Infants desire focuses on genitals Children become aware of opposite sexes and themselves. Develops an attachment to the parent of opposite sex Oepidus/Electra Complex:
a desire for sexual involvement with the parent of the opposite sex and a concomitant sense of rivalry with the parent of the same sex Castration Anxiety:
anxiety resulting from real or imagined threats to your sexual functions Penis Envy:
Females desire to be like their father. Able to determine the difference between males and females Starts to identify with the same-sex parent Definition: What does it mean? Purpose: 7-12 years of age
Child represses sexual thoughts and focus on social and intellectual skills Child focuses on the development of the ego and superego. Sexual energy is still present, but directed towards social and intellectual skills. Child develops:
social skills
communication skills
self-confidence Moms should have their child involved in a social setting and keep child academically involved. Genital Phase: Definition: What does it mean? Purpose: Ages 13+

Sexual urges begin to resurface Feels the desire to start a family Develops a strong interest to the opposite sex Learn to desire members of the opposite sex and to fulfill your instinct to procreate and thus ensure the survival of the human species. Balanced areas in life
Develop relationships with others If other stages are completed successfully, the individual will be:
caring
warm
well-balanced Opponents of Freud's ideas Karen Horney and Carl Jung Karen Horney Opposed the idea of penis envy
and rejection of femininity Believed that dreams, analytic relations, neurotic defenses were a cause to the mind. Sexual or aggression problems were more of a development to the brain. Carl Jung He accused Freud of dogmatism He believed in Freud's idea of dreams, but also began to believe in myths. Freud was being scientific on his research, but Jung thought otherwise. Led to theories on fairy tales and myths Defense Mechanisms When anxiety becomes too overbearing, the ego must defend itself and does so by blocking impulses or distorts them into a less threatening form. Defense mechanisms necessary in life
Defends itself from unwanted thoughts and desires
Led Freud to develop therapeutic treatment
Influences on literature and movies Denial is the blocking of external events from awareness.
If a situation is just too much too handle, the person refuses to experience it.
Primitive and dangerous
No one disregards reality and gets away from it for long.
Can operate on its own or in combination with other defense mechansims. The Defense Mechanisms Repression is not being able to recall a threatening situation, person, or event.
a dangerous mechanism
usually it is the irrational fears that derive repression of traumas Asceticism is the renunciation of needs. Most people have not heard of it, but is is relevant with the emergence of the disorder called anorexia.

Preadolescents may feel threatened by their sexual desires and unconsciously try to protect themselves by denying all desire.
Involved in some kind of ascetic lifestyle when the renounce their interest in what others enjoy. Isolation (intellectualization) involves stripping the emotion from a difficult memory or threatening impulse. Displacement is the redirection of an impulse onto a substitute target.
If the impulse or desire is okay with that you, but the person you direct that desire is too threatening , you can displace to someone or something that can serve as a symbolic substitute. Turning against the self is a very special form of displacement, where the person becomes their own substitute.
Normally used in reference to:
hatred
anger
aggression
Freud believes that it is the explanation of our feelings of inferiority, guilt, and depression.
Idea that depression is often the result of anger we refuse to acknowledge is accepted by many people. Projection is almost the complete opposite of turning against the self.
Involves the tendency to see your own unacceptable desires in other people.
Desires are still there, but they're not your desires anymore Altruistic surrender is a form of projection that at first glance looks like its opposite.
Person attempts to fulfill his or her own needs vicariously through other people. Reaction formation is changing the unacceptable impulse into its opposite.
Most common example found in children between ages seven to eleven, Undoing involves "magical" gestures or rituals that are meant to cancel out unpleasant feelings or thoughts after they've already occurred.
In "normal" people, the undoing is more conscious and we might engage in an act of atonement for some behavior or ask for forgiveness.
Some people, act of atonement is not conscious at all. Introjection (identification) involves taking your own personality characteristics of someone else because doing so solves some emotional difficulty.
Identification is very important to Freudian theory as the mechanism by which we develop our superegos. Identification with the aggressor is a version of introjection that focuses on the adoption of negative or feared traits.
If you are afraid of someone, you can partially conquer that fear by becoming more like them Regression is a movement back in psychological time when one is faced with stress.
When humans are troubled or frightened, our behaviors often become more childish and primitive. Rationalization is the cognitive distortion of "the facts" to make an event or impulse less threatening.
Humans often do it enough on a fairly conscious level when we provide excuses.
People with sensitive egos can make excuses so easily that they are never truly aware of it.
Many of us are quite prepared to believe our lies. Sublimation is the transforming of an unacceptable impulse into a socially acceptable, even productive form.
For Freud, all positive, creative activities were sublimations and predominantly of the sex drive. Freud's Influence on Literature Even if people were not trained in psychoanalysis, they had some familiarity with repression and the unconsciousness.
Freud believed that a person that had an illness stemmed from a childhood experience.
Charlie had emotional problems from the abuse of his mother.
Charlie’s motivation was largely from unconscious desires and this proved how he was emotionally happy when he had a deeper relationship with his close friend Alice. Flowers for Algernon Lord of the Flies According to Freud, Gods and devils were basically human processes projected into the outer world.
Ralph is a projection of a man’s authority and Freud would relate Ralph as the god in the island.
. As Ralph was projected into the world as a god, so was Piggy since he was a more scientific character and reasoned properly which made him the one that was similar to Freud. Freud's Dream Theory Freud began to analyze dreams so as to gain an understanding of an individual’s personality. Freud believed that dreams are the censored releases of our id’s impulses and desires.
The id, while awake, is constantly suppressed by the moralistic superego and sees the mind’s vulnerable state while sleeping as an opportunity to express its desires.
The content of the id’s desires are thought by Freud to be too disturbing for the mind.
Freud believed that if a person was exposed directly to the desires of the id, mental and emotional damage could be a result.
This is essentially Freud’s criticism of the id, claiming that its primitive nature is unfit for human consciousness.
Dreams, according to Freud’s theory, would be an essential factor in mental health as it acts as the guardian against one’s own id. Purpose and Factors of a Dream:
Dreams serve to protect the sleeper from exposure to external and internal stimuli.
External stimuli includes environmental and physical factors such as light, noise, temperature, pain (back, arm, leg etc.), the need to urinate etc.
Internal stimulus is classified as any set of strong, usually negative, emotions, thoughts, or desires.
Disassociates and disconnects from reality and confronts suppressed forms of external and, mostly, internal stimuli that would disturb and awaken the dreamer were it not for the censorship of dreams.
An external stimulus is often interpreted into some form of translation within the dream; your puppy gnawing on your finger may be depicted as a tiger attempting to bite off your arm.
Internal stimuli, because its complex nature correlating with emotions and feelings, is filtered much differently. Two Parts of a Dream Manifest Content Latent Content Manifest is the entire dream; it is all that the sleeper remembers about the displayed dream.
The superficial description of the dream, the manifest, is considered meaningless.
The manifest fulfills its job by suppressing the true thoughts and concerns of the sleeper by disguising them within the dream. The latent content holds the true meaning of the dream, and depicts the sleeper’s true thoughts, feelings, and desires.
The latent content is subtly weaved into the manifest, making the latent content of the dream present in the depiction of the dream but virtually unrecognizable.
In rare cases referred to by Freud as “infantile dreams,” the latent content may be clearly depicted and obvious to the sleeper. Freud believed that objects and concepts familiar to the sleeper were disguised by symbols. Psycho Hawks notes that Freud believed many objects that appeared in the manifest were sex related.
Objects such as trees, sticks, rockets, lamps, or anything long were thought by Freud to represent the male sex organ.
Anything that contained space inside of it-things like pots, pans, ovens, fireplaces, wardrobes etc.-represented the female genitalia. Displacement, transfers any emotions or desires into a meaningless object.
This is perhaps the most important part of Freud’s dream theory as it disguises the heart of the sleeper’s emotions and desires to a point of inconceivability, leading to an undisturbed sleep.
Emotions of love toward a person may be transferred into the manifest and appear as love towards a car. The first step of the process is called condensation.
Condensation grabs latent content and embeds it into the manifest.
It’s the initial step towards masking any raw thoughts that may disturb the sleeper. Dream Works Displacement The final stage of “dream works” is secondary revision.
Freud claims this stage to be the point at which dreams lose their “appearance of absurdity and incoherence.”
In the process of secondary revision, “dream work” reorganizes the dream to fit the pattern of everyday life. Secondary Revision Overview of Sigmund Freud Sigmund Freud was an excellent observer of the human condition and contributed greatly to therapy for his work on the ego defense mechanisms.

He hypothesized that sexual drive lay behind many unconscious desires and that shocked the nineteenth-century European society.

Although Freud’s theories are questionable, there is no doubt that he gained fame for introducing a new model for thinking about human behavior. Sigmund Freud. Digital Image. bio.TrueStory. Web. 20 Jan. 2013. <http://www.biography.com/people/sigmund-freud-9302400> Conscious and Subconscious mind. Digital Image. Inspired Living. Web. 20 Jan. 2013. <encwor.blogspot.com>. Sahoo, F.M. Conscious/Subconscious Mind. Digital Image. Atlas of Mind. 1 Jun. 2011. Web. 20 Jan. 2013. <atlasofmind.info>. Id, Ego, Superego. Digital Image. Blogspot. Web. 20 Jan. 2013. <jamielzillseniorport.blogspot.com>. Id, Ego, Superego. Digital Image. Blogspot. Web. 20 Jan. 2013. <jamielzillseniorport.blogspot.com>. Green. Oral Stage. Digital Image. Little Green Blog. 31 Jan. 2008. Web. 20 Jan. 2013. <http://littlegreenblog.com/family-and-food/safe-ethical-toys/>. Anal Stage. Digital Image. The Free Dictionary. Web. 20 Jan. 2013. <thefreedictionary.com>. Shea, Aimee Rebekah. The Phallic Stage of Development. Digital Image. eHow Mom. Web. 20 Jan. 2013. <http://www.ehow.com/info_8506868_phallic-stage-development.html>. The Oedipus Complex. Digital Image. Shoolworkhelper. Web. 20 Jan. 2013. <schoolhelpworker.net>. Shukla, Ishani Chatterjee. Electra Complex. Buzzle. 30 Sept. 2011. Web. 20 Jan. 2013. <buzzle.com>. Sarah. Latency Phase. ModernFamilyLife.Net. 24 Jan. 2012. Web. 20 Jan. 2013. <modernfamilylife.net>. Smith, Ivan. Genital Phase. Digital Image. Public Domain Edition of Freud’s Completed Works. Web. 20 Jan. 2013. <gildedgreen.com>. Langenderfer, Gretchen. Karen Horney. Digital Image. Karen Horney. May 1999. Web. 20 Jan. 2013. <muskingum.edu>. Carl Jung. Digital Image. NNDB. Web. 20 Jan. 2013. <nndb.com>. Sigmund Freud. Digital Image. Investing Caffeine. 25 Apr. 2011. Web. 20 Jan. 2013. <investingcaffeine.com>. Sources: Boeree, Geno, and "Overview of Sigmund Freud" Sources: Boeree, "Overview of Sigmund Freud" Sources: Boeree, "Overview of Sigmund Freud" Sources: Boeree, "Overview of Sigmund Freud" Sources: Bradley, Felluga, "Freudian Dream Theory," Horney, "Sigmund Freud," Gedo Sources: "Karen Horney," "Carl Jung" Sources: Boeree, Geno Sources: "Lord of the Flies" and "Flowers for Algernon" Source: Dream Moods Source: Insomnium Source: Psycho Hawks Source: Kendra Cherry Sources: Kendra Cherry and Psycho Hawks Source: Psycho Hawks Source: Insomnium Source: Boeree, Geno, "Overview of Sigmund Freud" Inception. Dir. Christopher Nolan. Warner Bros. Pictures. 2010. Film. Inception. Dir. Christopher Nolan. Warner Bros. Pictures. 2010. Film.
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