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Introduction to Ecology

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by

Christopher Himmelheber

on 2 April 2014

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Transcript of Introduction to Ecology

Introduction to Ecology and the Biosphere
August
1982
Sea
urchin
August
1983
February
1983
February
1984
Both limpets
and urchins
removed
Limpet
100
80
60
40
20
0
Only
urchins
removed
Only limpets removed
Control (both urchins and limpets present)
Seaweed cover (%)
Study of interactions between organisms and environment
Lakes
Eutrophic
Oligotrophic
Estuaries
Temperate Broadleaf Forest
The environment includes:
Abiotic, or nonliving, components
Biotic, or living, components
All the organisms are collectively called the biota
Abiotic Factors
Temperature
Water
Sunlight
Wind
Rocks and soil
Streams/Rivers
Intertidal Zones
Oceanic Pelagic (Open Ocean)
Coral Reef
Marine Benthic Zone
Terrestrial Biomes
Named for major physical/climatic factors and vegetation
Stratification
Usually grade into each other
Ecotone, may be wide or narrow
Tropical Forest
Desert
Savanna
Chaparral
Temperate Grassland
Coniferous Forest
Tundra
Biotic Factors
Interactions with other species
Predation
Competition
Aquatic biomes
Biotic and abiotic factors determine the nature of biomes
Fresh v. salt water
Light penetration
Temperature
Depth
Wetlands
What is ecology?
Climate
A major determinate of climate is latitude
Prevailing weather in an area
Temperature
Water
Sunlight
Wind
Local geographic features also affect climate
Nutrient poor
Oxygen rich
Low levels of organic matter in sediment
Nutrient rich
Oxygen poor
High levels of organic matter in sediment
Salinity, oxygen concentration and nutrient content can vary from season to season
Temperate lakes may have a seasonal thermocline
Tropical lakes may have a year-round thermocline
Time, sediment, nutrients
Plants inhanit the littoral zone close to shore
Phytoplankton and cyanobacteria furhter out (limnetic zone)
Pollution (esp. fertilizer) can lead to eutrophication
High organic production and decomposition, often low in dissolved oxygen
Covered with water long enough to support aquatic plants
Humans have destroyed up to 90% of wetlands
Moving water (current)
Headwater
Low salt and nutrients
Rich in oxygen
Downstream
Higher salt and nutrients
May have high oxygen if no organic contanimation
May have some aquatic plants at headwaters
Transition area between river and sea
Complex flow patterns
Area periodically covered with water (high tides)
Oxygen and nutrient replenished with tide
Plant life depends on goelogic features
Animals are adapted to substrate
Very rich in plant and aimal life
Salinity varies with location, tide and layer
Constant mixing
Deep photic zone
High oxygen levels
Low nutrient levels
Constant thermal stratification
~70% of Earth's surface
Dominated by phtoplankton and zooplankton
Limited to photic zone of tropical-marine areas
Require high oxygen levels
Corals form their own solid substrate
Very high fish and invertebrate diversity
Seafloor - no sunlight
No photosynthesis
Main energy source is chemosynthetic prokaryotes
Rain forests (200 - 400 cm rain/year) and dry forests (150 - 200 cm/year)
Warm year round (25 - 29 C)
Plants are stratified and compete for light esp. in rain forests
Very high animal diversity (highest of any terrestrial biome)
Very low precipitation (<30 cm/year)
Variable temperature (seasonal and daily)
Low, widely scattered plants
Plants and animals adapted to dry climate
Low rainfall (30 - 50 cm/year), long dry season (8 - 9 months)
Warm year-round (24 - 29 C)
Grasses and forbs wth scattered trees adapted to dry conditions
Fires common during dry season
Large herbivores and predators
Rainy winters, dry summers (30 - 50 cm/year)
Cool fall, winter, spring (10 - 12 C); warm summer (30 - 40 C)
High plant diversity, dominated by shrubs and small trees
Herbivorous mammals (deer, goats, small mammals)
Diverse amphibians, birds/reptiles, insects
Rainfall 20 - 60 cm/year in arctic tundra, 100 cm/year in alpine areas
Long, cold winters (-30 C); short, cool summers (10 C)
Permafrost prevents large plants
Large, grazing mammals (ox, caribou, reindeer) and predators (bears, wolves, foxes)
Seasonal precipitation (dry winter, wet summer), 30 - 100 cm/year
Cold winters (-10 C), hot summers (30 C)
Grasses and forbs dominate plants
Grazing animals (bison, horses) prevent shrubs and trees
Largest terrestrial biome
30 - 70 cm precipitaion/year
Long, cold winters; summer may be hot
Conifers dominate plant life
Diverse mammals (moose, bears, tigers), migratory birds
Precipitation all year long (70 - 200 cm/year)
Cold winters (0 C), hot and humid summers (30 C)
Deciduous trees dominant Northern Hemisphere forests
Forests are stratified vertically
Mammals hibernate, birds migrate
Full transcript