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Psychology unit 2: Biology and Behavior

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Joe Berchtold

on 25 March 2015

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Transcript of Psychology unit 2: Biology and Behavior

Biology and Behavior
Dendrites
Axon
Axon Terminal
Cell Body
Myelin Sheath
Central Nervous System
Nervous System
Peripheral Nervous System
Somatic Nervous System
Autonomic Nervous System
Sympathetic Nervous System
Parasympathetic Nervous System
Brain
&
Spinal Cord
"Command Center"
for the nervous system
Everything else. Transports messages of CNS throughout the body
Voluntary movements
(walking, throwing, etc.)
Involuntary or
Automatic
Actions
The body's arousal system
The Nervous System
(Heart rate, breathing, digestion, etc.)
The body's calming system
The Neuron
thin branch-like structures that receive signals, usually from other neurons
Uses chemical processes to interpret the data from the dendrites
After the data is interpreted, it is sent out via the axon
a protective covering around the axon which enables it to send info faster and more efficiently
the end of the neuron, where information is sent elsewhere
Synapse
(up close)
Synapse
Action potential
an electric pulse which travels down the axon and relays information
Neurotransmitter

Acetylcholine





Norepinephrine




Dopamine



Endorphins



Serotonin
Effects

which seems to involved in
muscle movement, memory, and REM sleep
. Neat facts: Botox limits the effect of this chemical resulting in temporary paralysis. This chemical also seems to be lacking in people suffering from Alzheimer’s


puts the body on “high alert”
to prepare for stressful situations. Most amphetamines increase the level of production of this chemical to potentially dangerous levels.


also involved in
movement, learning and memory
. Schizophrenics and Parkinson’s patients usually have problems with dopamine production


the bodies natural pain control and pleasure producer
. Narcotics mimic the effects of endorphins but also cause the body to stop making them


emotion
and
mood
also
hunger
and
sleep.
The chemical most involved with people suffering from depression and anxiety disorders. So Zoloft and all that stuff allow for more effective use of this chemical.
Neurotransmitters
Reuptake
The sending neuron will “swallow back” some of the neurotransmitter not allowing it to continue the message down the line
chemical messengers that pass in between neurons
The Brain
The Limbic System
The Cerebral Cortex
Parietal Lobe
Occipital Lobe
Temporal Lobe
information highway of the brain
controls the other glands throughout the body
memory center of brain, particularly long term memory
hearing, memory and understanding language (only on left side- Wernicke’s area)
taste and touch information
vision
The Endocrine System
Studying the Brain
Brain Injuries
(Phineas Gage, Gabby Giffords, etc.)
Lesions
With animals, scientists can cut away part of the brain to see what behaviors may change.
Stimulation
By electrically stimulating part of the brain and recording what if any behaviors are altered.
We use machines that scan the brain in different ways to give us an indication of what parts of the brain are active for certain functions
Scanning
EEG
- Electroencephalogram
MRI
- Magnetic Resonance Imaging
fMRI
- functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging
PET - Positron Emission Tomography
CAT - Computerized Axial Tomograpy
MRI
We can look at the change in behavior when people get brain injuries and use that to determine what parts of the brain do what
Uses hormones to influence behavior. Throughout the body are scattered glands to secrete the hormones.
Frontal Lobe
judgment, emotional control, voluntary movement, and expressing language (only on left side- Broca’s area)
handles extreme emotion and sets emotional priorities
involved in emotion, hunger, and thirst
Pons
Medulla
Cerebellum
Involved in balance, coordination, and some voluntary movement
involved in sleep, arousal, and facial expression
regulates vital functions such as breathing and blood flow
Hypothalamus
Pituitary Gland
The Hindbrain
Amygdala
Thalamus
Hippocampus
Posthumous examination
fMRI
the cells that make up the nervous system (along with glial cells)
we have roughly 100,000,000,000 (
100 billion
) of them
Humans have a minimum of 100,000,000,000,000 (
100 trillion
) neural connections
Insulin controls level of sugar in the body (diabetes)
Adrenaline - metabolism, and deals with emergencies
Pituitary
Pineal
Thyroid
Pancreas
Adrenal
Gonads
the master gland, it also controls growth, and maturation
The pineal gland produces the hormone melatonin, which affects the sleep-wake cycle
Growth and metabolism
sexual behavior and reproduction
If someone donates their brain to science after they die, we can use that brain for various purposes
Full transcript