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Transcript of Social Institutions
Principle that all organizations, even democratic ones, tend to develop into a bureaucracy ruled by an elite few
Actions that violate the core principles of bureaucracy can seep in
Ascribed statuses such as gender, race, and ethnicity can influence how people are treated
Iron Law of Oligarchy
Organized pattern of beliefs and behavior centered on basic social needs
unrecognized and unintended functions.
unforeseen consequences of institutions.
A latent function of a behavior is not explicitly stated, recognized, or intended by the people involved
Major institutions serve as key elements of the larger social structure
functions that are intended and recognized.
functions which people assume
and expect the institutions to fulfill.
the consequences that people observe or expect.
explicitly stated and understood by the participants in the relevant action
intended (manifest) or unintended (latent), and have a positive effect on society
Examples illustrating the differences between manifest and latent functions:
The “manifest” function of antigambling legislation may be to suppress gambling, its “latent” function to create an illegal empire for the gambling syndicates.
Or Christian missions in parts of Africa “manifestly” tried to convert Africans to Christianity, “latently” helped to destroy the indigenous tribal cultures and this provided an important impetus towards rapid social transformation.
Or the “manifest” function of many voluntary associations in America is sociability and public service, the “latent” function to attach status indices to those permitted to belong to such associations.”
Component of formal organization that uses rules and hierarchical ranking to achieve efficiency
Process by which a group, organization,
or social movement increasingly relies on
technical-rational decision making in the
pursuit of efficiency
Bureaucratization as a Way of Life
Process by which
the principles of efficiency, calculability,
predictability, and control shape organization
and decision making