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The Fundamental Character of Human Subjectivity

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alice dy

on 18 September 2012

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Transcript of The Fundamental Character of Human Subjectivity

The Fundamental Character of Human Subjectivity Martin Heidegger and the Ontological possibilities of man Man As being in the World Man has- the meaning of his existance Dasein- There-being Man - the meaning of his existence Heidegger's phenomenological approach- seeks to unify human consciousness with the world Advent of modernity saw the world as separate from man. With the emergence of the scientific era, method acted as the source of knowledge, including the knowledge of what man is. Rene Descartes "The senses act as instruments of deception" "I discovered That thought is an attribute that really does belong to me. This alone cannot be detached from me. I am; I exist; this is certain" "I Am Therefore I exist" Heidegger Man as dasein, belongs to the world Man has "the power to be in the world." In understanding the world being is also understood. Being is Altheia. Being is the discloseness and concealment of the meaning of things. Man Directs himself to a future where he is able to realize his possibilities in the world. Language - the avenue to which being to man is manifested. Therefore, being reveals the truth of beings to human consciousness through language. Language presents the reality of beings, that beings are or that beings exist. Language and the Problem of Being Language - the avenue to which being to man is manifested. Thererefore, being reveals the truth of beings to human consciousness through language. Language presents the reality of beings, that beings are or that beings exist. Franz Brentano’s “On the Manifold Meanings of Beings for Aristotle” inspired Heidegger’s quest for the meaning of being. Aristotle understands being as ousia which refers to the to the active concrete and changing substance, actualized by form. He rejected Plato’s abstract world of forms and considered the particular entities in the world as the really real. For Aristotle:
• To be real means to be a substance
• Substances form the structure of the world
However, Aristotle’s explication of substance as real deals with beings as entities as entities and not with being as aletheia. Aeistotle bypassed being in a sense. Aristotle has been oblivious to being. Aristotle is not aware of the very important role that language plays in the disclosedness of the meaning of beings. According to Heidegger, being comes to man’s awareness because man belongs to language. •Language, as “the house of being”, is the dwelling place of man.•Since man belongs to language, man belongs to being too. Human existence means standing in the lighting of being, that’s why of all the existing beings, only man can ask questions regarding beings.•Dwelling in the house of being enables man to speak of a world•It is language that makes the world a world of man, a world where his possibilities are realized.•To speak of the world means to speak of being.•Man, by being-in-the-world, stands in front of being. ".. it is through the nothing that the openness of the meaning of beings is revealed." The Nothing as a source of Being * The possibility of saying refers to the unsaid in speech. Nothing as the origin of being * ex nihilo nihil fit - "from the nothing, nothing comes to be." * "if man is to find himself again into the nearness of being, he must first learn to exist in the nameless." Science: the silence of the nothing does not say anything. Silence: possibilities of saying something "Anxiety refers to the state of mind that brings humans to the indeterminate possibilities of their existence." HUSSERL’S phenomenology Phenomenology of the will What is will? Human act Body world To will To do something REFLECTS TO WHO HE IS AS A PERSON (MAN’S CHARACTER) SINCE MAN IS AWARE OF HIS ACTIONS, HE MUST BE RESPONSIBLE FOR THEM level of perception each person have different insights depending on experience hence, human existence does not only depend on the level of seeing but also contemplate on the level of action. Gabriel Marcel “my existence finds itself as being-with-others, and not as a mere abstract thought” rejects Descartes CARTESIAN COGITO thus, MAN is not just an ego. MAN transforms the world through his conscious willing and doing Phenomenological method of reduction to understand who man is- EPOCH The Ego as an Isolated Subject Death and Man as Not-yet • According to Martin Heidegger, DEATH is man’s ultimate possibility, whereas, death is the completion of man’s existence in the world. •Man, being ahead-of-himself, continually projects actualizing his potentialities for existence. • The not-yet is the nothingness in human existence. Man, still, being in the world, is being an unfinished project. He has many potentialities in life that can be discovered and used by him in his existence. •For the world is man’s ground in fulfilling these possibilities that he may actualize and only in death that he will have the fulfillment of being a man. • Death as a possibility for man is revealed in anxiety, whereas, in death, man is apprehensive in the reality of death hence, not for the after-life but he dreads being-in-the-world. He fears in losing the time being with his loved ones such as his family and friends as well as the career that will be left behind. Refers to the suspension of our natural attitude in order to see the meaning of human experience as it unfolds before us. Means to look at human experience away from the biases brought forth by science and the prejudices that we have from our natural attitude towards things To be conscious is to be conscious of the real world Ego is the sole origin of meaning Cogito is the basis of all knowledge A note on Embodiment Leo Garcia Deciding- pragma Creative repetition of the philosophy of the will Acting -
Man's Will
Cartesian cogito Paul Rocoer's Phenomenology of the will
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