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European History Final Project

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Simon Lu

on 15 November 2012

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Transcript of European History Final Project

Frederick the Great Frederick & the War of Austrian Succession Birth: January 24, 1712
Death: August 17, 1786 (74 yrs.)
Reign: May 31, 1740- August 17, 1786
Successor: Frederick William II
Predecessor: Frederick William I
Religious views: Calvinism, Deism Who was Frederick?
Basic Facts Frederick & the Silesian War By: Maranie Harris- Kuiper, Summer Grace Flemister, & Tingchi Lu Military Success Frederick the Great, King of Prussia and ruler of the Hohenzollern dynasty, organized and lead Prussian armies. Nicknamed Der Alte Fritz, German for “Old Fritz,” Frederick ruled an army lead by “Grenadier Guards,” who supported a strong central government. His primary opponent was Austria, who he fought against for territorial control. Frederick was also known for being heavily involved in the Silesian and the War of Austrian Succession, which granted Prussia control over the Oder River located in Saxony, Germany. The Silesian Wars were revolts between Prussia and Austria for the supreme authority over Silesia. It later erupted the Seven Years War and the War of Austrian Succession, which questioned Maria Theresa’s power over Europe. However, claiming an alliance with Great Britain, Frederick invaded Saxony, thus marking the beginning of the Seven Years War. Yet, Frederick was most popular for his succession of Silesia during the wars. He was admired for his brilliant military tactics and his strategic order of battle, which focused on the weaknesses of his opponent. In the end, Frederick was most triumphant and victorious for the win of the battles of Rossback, Leuthen, and Hohenfriedberg. Questioning of Sexuality Observing Frederick’s relations with Hans Hermann von Katte as romantic, many people thought Frederick was either homosexual or bisexual. Katte was later executed by Fredrick’s father, and the king was forced to marry Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick- Bevern. Frederick was against his marriage and only visited his wife once a year after the death of his father. His sexuality was further observed through his friendship with the French philosopher, Voltaire, with whom he had many disputes. His friendship with Voltaire was not romantic, however, Voltaire was supposedly envious of Frederick’s militarism. With Voltaire’s attack on Frederick’s academy, Frederick burned Voltaire’s pamphlet and sentence him to house arrest. In addition, Voltaire’s The Private Life of the King of Prussia openly admits Frederick’s sexuality. In return, the king neither confirmed or denied any of the information given and his relationship with Voltaire was later smoothed out in the end. Frederick & Voltaire The Seven Years' War The Seven Years' War was a world war that took place between 1756 and 1763. The war was driven by the antagonism between Great Britain (in personal union with Hanover) and the Bourbons (in France and Spain), resulting from overlapping interests in their colonial and trade empires, and by the antagonism between the Hohenzollerns (in Prussia) and Habsburgs (Holy Roman Emperors and archdukes in Austria), resulting from territorial and hegemonial conflicts in the Holy Roman Empire. The Diplomatic Revolution established an Anglo-Prussian camp, allied with some smaller German states and later Portugal, as well as an Austro-French camp, allied with Sweden, Saxony and later Spain. The Russian Empire left its offensive alliance with the Habsburgs on the succession of Peter III in 1762, and like Sweden concluded a separate peace with Prussia. The war ended with the peace treaties of Paris (Bourbon France and Spain, Great Britain) and of Hubertusburg (Hohenzollerns, Habsburgs, Saxon elector) in 1763. The war was characterized by sieges and arson of towns as well as open battles involving extremely heavy losses; overall, some 900,000 to 1,400,000 people died. The results for Prussia British success continued in 1760, with victory over the French in India at the Battle of Wandiwash (Madras, 22 January), which ended French hopes of a victory in India. It also saw some success for Frederick II, despite a short occupation of Berlin by the Russians in October. He defeated the Austrians at Torgau (3 November), although losses were heavy on both sides. 1761 continued in the same vein, with the British successful at Pondicherry (January), and the Germans defeating the French at Villinghause (15 July). At this point, the nature of the war was changed by the death of two monarchs. First was the death of George II, and the accession of George III, who ended British aid to Prussia. Just when it looked like Prussia was doomed, Tsar Peter III succeeded to the Russian Throne (January 1762). The new Tsar was a great admirer of Frederick II, and quickly moved to end the war between Prussia and Russia (Treaty of St. Petersburg, 5 May 1762). The war now turned decisively towards Britain and Prussia. Frederick II defeated the Austrians at Burkersdorf (21 July 1762) and Reichenbach (16 August), regaining all of his lost territory, while the British captured Havana and Manila from the Spanish. Peace between Britain and France was restored by the Treaties of Fontainebleau (3 November 1763) and of Paris (10 February 1763), in which Britain restored Cuba and the Philippines to Spain, while retained her conquests from the French in Canada, America and India. Five days later the Treaty of Hubertusberg (15 February 1763) saw peace between Austrian, Prussia and Saxony, confirming Silesia as Prussian territory. The War of Bavarian Succession The War of the Bavarian Succession (July 1778 – May 1779) was fought between the Habsburg Monarchy and a Saxon–Prussian alliance to prevent the Habsburg acquisition of the Duchy of Bavaria. The war had no battles beyond a few minor skirmishes, but still resulted in significant casualties, as several thousand soldiers died from disease and starvation. Reflecting the soldiers' frustrating quest for food and forage, the conflict was also called the Kartoffelkrieg (Potato War) in Prussia and Saxony; in Habsburg Austria, it was sometimes called the Zwetschgenrummel (Plum Fuss). The War of Bavarian Succession Frederick's Characteristics: 1. Enlightened Monarch
Like other rulers before him, Frederick was an absolutist ruler. However, he was a little different; Frederick participated in enlightened absolutism, which was when a ruler kept the country’s most critical needs in mind. In other words, Frederick did anything to have Prussia’s benefits come first. Enlightened influenced rulers tended to accept religious tolerance, rights to private property, freedom of both speech and the press, and were usually influenced by the arts, sciences, and education. 2. Literary and Multi-lingual
Man Frederick was highly interested in language, believing it symbolized power and intelligence. Supporters claimed he “spoke Spanish to God, Italian to women, French to men, and German to women” However, French was the language he mastered. He was also believed to be both a poet and a writer. While composing music, Frederick wrote over 30 poems and books before his death. Frederick's Characteristics: Interests In Art Frederick was attracted to all kinds of art. He particularly liked music, language, writing, drawing and had designed the Schloss Sanssouci,
In terms of languages, Frederick could speak German, French, English, Spanish, Portugues, and Italian. He can also understand Latin, Ancient Greek, and Hebrew.
Frederick was great at playing the western concert flute. In 1747, he met Johann Sebastian Bach. After Fredrick the Great’s Father died, Fredrick II inherited the most advanced army in Europe. Before Charles VI, the Emperor of Austria died, he created the Pragmatic Sanction for his Maria Theresa, his predecessor, to make sure that Austria would be protected from the other European countries. After Charles died, Fredrick tore up their commitment to the pragmatic sanction and took Silesia, successfully starting his first war. War of Austrian Succession Early into Fredrick’s life he was not interested in ruling a kingdom or fighting in wars. He was very into music and language and was devoted to his mother. For most of the beginning of his life, his father and his relationship was filled with tension. In 1730, at the age of 18, he and his friend attempted to escape from his fathers kingdom. They were caught however, and Fredrick I had his son’s friend executed. According to some reports, Fredrick II too would have been executed had it not been for kings of Sweden and Poland who interfered in his favor. After he was caught, he retired to Ruppin where philosophers surrounded him and scholars he admired. After his father death, Fredrick II took over Prussia’s rule, when he drastically changed his personality, becoming less peaceful and doing the necessary things to become a ruler such as becoming a solider. Fredrick’s Attempt At Escaping Fredrick gained the name Fredrick “the great” for a reason. Under his reign, Prussia expanded and became the foremost military power in Europe. Frederick also enabled Germany to emerge as a major world power by laying down the foundation for the eventual unification of the German princely states. As a ruler, Fredrick cared a lot about making his kingdom better for the people, and for the future. He introduced bureaucratic reforms making the Prussian civil service more efficient, and a system of primary education, becoming the basis of the future German state. To his nation, he was a symbol of Patriotism. Patriotism Frederick's Patriotism Bibliography http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frederick_the_Great http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seven_Years%27_War http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/War_of_the_Bavarian_Succession http://www.germaniainternational.com/thirdreichart16.html http://www.munger.ca/history/frederickthegreat.html http://mmabbasi.com/2011/10/19/frederick-the-great/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anti-Machiavel http://www.myspace.com/144036095 http://www.sacklunch.net/biography/F/FrederickTheGreat.html
http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Frederick_II_of_Prussia http://www.germaniainternational.com/images2/openerpictures/Frederick_Great_Pg3_Opener.jpg
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