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Chapter 2: Origins of American Government

Origins of American Government
by

Andrew Cantrell

on 16 September 2014

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Transcript of Chapter 2: Origins of American Government

A of C Weaknesses
Chapter 2
Origins of
American Government

Basic Concepts of
Government
It took awhile for the government to form...it didn't happen as soon as the Declaration of Independence was written.
Ordered Government...
Limited Government...
Representative Government...
Types of Government
the need for an orderly regulation of relationships with one another. This came from the British.
Ex: Sheriff, grand jury, counties
is when the government is restricted in what they may do and every individual has certain rights the government can't take away. Again...this is a British belief.
is the belief that the government should serve the will of the people.
Landmark English
Documents
Document prompted by English the seeking protection against heavy-handed (unfair)
and
arbitrary
acts.
1.Magna Carta
Petition of Right
1. No imprisonment without a
trial by jury of peers.
No martial law (military rule) in times of peace (or quartering of troops)
English Bill
of Rights
Parliament drew this up
to prevent abuses of
power by
William
and Mary.
1. Prohibited a standing army in peacetime, except if Parliament deemed it necessary.
3. Guaranteed a right to a fair trial.
4. Guaranteed freedom from excessive bail and cruel and unusual punishments.
The 13 Colonies
The thirteen
Connecticut
Rhode Island
Coming
of
Just some random facts of why we didn't want to be under King George III's thumb anymore...
Colonial
Colonists became very angry over time and shouted toward the King (so to speak)...
Colonists got to the point of either submit to the crown or
REVOLT!
Was Britain justified in imposing
taxes on the colonies???
What do you think???
Growing Colonial Unity
New taxes not liked and 9 out of 13 colonies met at the Stamp Act Congress...first time a significant number of colonies met together to protest the King.
Second Continental Congress
Met in Philly. Governed the Colonies during the American Revolution.
Considered to be the first meeting of our government.
Declaration of Independence
came from this meeting.
Declaration of Independence
stated that the 13 colonies were free and independent
Common Features of the
state constitution
Popular
Limited Gov
Checks & Balances
ARTICLES
OF
Established a firm league of friendship among the states.
Effective on March 1, 1781
A of C
Governmental Structure
send and receive ambassadors
make treaties
borrow money
set up a monetary system
establish post offices
build a navy
raise an army
weights and measures
settle disputes between states
no way to enforce articles
Independence Hall
Philadelphia, PA
THE FRAMERS
The group of delegates who attended the Constitutional Convention are known as the framers.
The Proposals
Virginia Plan
New Jersey Plan
Created by James Madison
Three branches: legislative, executive, judicial
Representation in the legislature was to be based on population or by the amount of money given by the state to the central gov.
Members of the House of Reps were to be popularly elected in each state.
Members of the Senate were to be chosen by the House from lists of persons nominated by state legislatures.
Congress was to be given all the powers it held under the A of C, act to veto any state law that violated national law, and use force to make the states obey national law.
William Paterson of NJ presented the position of the small states:
Unicameral Congress where each state was equally represented.
Closely limited power of Congress in regards to taxing and trade regulation between states.
Federal executive of more than one person.
Federal judiciary would be comprised of a single supreme tribunal.
COMPROMISES
Connecticut Compromise
3/5 Compromise
Congress should be composed of 2 houses.
Smaller Senate would be represented equally, House based on population.
Combined basic features of the VA and NJ Plans.
AKA Great Compromise
Question of whether slaves should be counted as population.
Framers agreed to count slaves as 3/5 of all other persons.
The Fight for Ratification
Federalists
FAVORED
ratification...

Anti-Federalists
OPPOSED
ratification...

James Madison & Alexander Hamilton
John Hancock & Sam Adams
Anti-Federalists were opposed to no mention of God and denial to the states to make their own money.
The biggest arguments:
greater increase of power of the central government.
Lack of a Bill of Rights
New York was last...
9 STATES ratify
Delaware was first...
New York City became the temporary capital city of the United States and is where George Washington took his oath of office as the 1st President on Wall Street on April 30, 1789.
Government should be restricted. Individual has certain rights. Deep in English roots of government
colonists did not want government to take away basic individual rights such as freedom of speech and the right to worship
Royal Colonies...
Were subject to direct control of the crown. The king named a governor for each colony. They were usually very strict and made the people angry.
New York
South Carolina
Proprietary
were organized by a proprietor, a person whom the king made a grant of land. Once granted a charter, the proprietor could govern however he chose
Assessment
1. What ideas and traditions influenced government in the English colonies?
2. What were the three main types of English colonies?
3. Which two colonies had more freedom and self-government than the other colonies?
4. Do 2-4 on p. 34
5. What do the Magna Carta, Petition of Right, and the English Bill of Rights have in common?
2. Free elections for Parliament
1600s
2010
Britain did not interfere with colonial government for nearly a century.
Then King George III came to power. He needed money to pay British debts. He began to deal more firmly with the colonists by restricting trade and imposing new taxes.
1760
The proposed congress would have the power to:
Franklin proposed the creation of an annual congress of
delegates
from each of the 13 colonies.
Albany Plan
This was turned down by the colonies and the crown.
1754
1765
Resentment in the colonies was growing over harsh tax and trade policies.
Stamp Act Congress
1774
First Continental Congress
Met for 2 months and sent a
Declaration of Rights
to the King.
Parliament was punishing the colonists for the Boston Tea Party with Intolerable Acts (prompts the meeting).
1775
(Fall/Winter)
1607
Jamestown Founded
1620
Intolerable Acts
laws passed by the British Parliament to punish the colonists
Government can only exist with the consent of the people. The people hold the power.
The power of the government has many restrictions.
Power of government is divided among three branches. Each branch has a way to control the power of the others.
Assessment
1. The ____ was formed to defend against Native Americans.
2. What events led to the First Continental Congress?
3. What were the goals of the First and Second Continental Congresses?
Included guarantees of
trial by jury
and
due process of law.
(life, liberty, or property can't be taken away for no reason)
1219
London was 2,000 miles and an ocean away so at the start the British had to allow for SELF RULE.
New Jersey
So where did these ideas of government come from ?
King John
It established the monarch's power
was not absolute.
2.
Oh hey there. I'm King Charles the I. I wanted more money from Parliament, but those dastardly bureaucrats in Parliament refused to give it to me until I signed some kind of agreement.
I ran into a bit of a problem. See I figured that nobody could tell me what to do because my power came from God, not mere men. So I didn't actually stick to my word...
Moral of the story?
Even monarchs have to obey the law of the land.
colonies were
established over
125 years but they
weren't all the same...
Lord Baltimore
Colonies
Colonies
were founded by religious dissenters
Successful self-governing with a governor elected by property owners.
More freedom and self government than any other colony type.
After independence, the Connecticut and Rhode Island Charters were kept with minor changes until the late 1800s.
Pilgrims Sign the Mayflower Compact
p. 782
raise military and naval forces
make war & peace with Native Americans
regulate trade
tax
ndependence...
British
Policy
Franklin
Jefferson
Adams
Written by a committee
consisting of:
Signed
has the
oldest constitution.
Sovereignty
People have certain rights that the government must respect.
&
Separation

of
Powers
YES!!!
Did they really believe they would be executed?
EXECUTION
What risk did the patriots face in defying Britain?
CONFEDERATION
Initially meant to revise the articles, the convention ended up writing the Constitution.
Western Massachusetts, Shay led an uprising of a federal arsenal because they were tired of high taxes.
Made Congress realize the needed to ease the stress of the debtors, economic chaos happening, and there was a need for a stronger government.
Resulted in the meeting in Philadelphia that became known as the Constitutional Convention.
Powers missing
no power to tax
no power to regulate trade between states
States
Central Government
Each year Congress chose a member to be president.
Each state had one vote in Congress.
A of C
S
Send & Receive
Full transcript