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Lesson 3.06 Mutations
Transcript of Lesson 3.06 Mutations
BRCA Mutations in Women Diagnosed with Breast Cancer
In 2011, there were more than 2.6 million breast cancer survivors in the U.S. alone. Even though breast cancer isn't 100 percent preventable, getting the cancer cells removed has been 70 percent successful. There are many ways that mutations lead to genetic variations. The genes that are related to breast cancer are BRCA1, BRCA2, CDH1,STK11 and TPS. These genes increase the risk of developing breast cancer.
Cancer is caused by a build up of genetic mutations in critical conditions -those that control cell growth and division or repair of damaged DNA- forming a tumor. This happens during a persons lifetime; somatic mutations which are in fact NOT inherited. BRCA1 and BRCA2 are inherited and women with this inherited gen have a high risk of get breast cancer, ovarian cancer and several other cancers. Race, gender, age hormonal factors and changes in breast tissue also are major factors in being diagnosed with BRCA1 BRCA2 or cancer in general.
The question many women ask their doctors about BRCA1 and BRCA2 is "Which cancer is more dangerous in terms of fatality?" Looking back at the the two charts of breast cancer, the amount of women that died from the inherited genes showed to be excessively lower than the women who didn't have the BRCA mutation. Testing positive for having the trait doesn't mean you will get the inheritance. Some women, in fact go their whole lives with thought developing the cancer cells. BRC1 is in fact more harmful than BRCA2. There have been more mastectomies, deaths and the age for getting BRCA1 is younger than BRCA2 (43 years of age). A child that carries the gene has a 50% chance of inheriting the mutation.
Women with BRCA1 mutation have a higher risk of dying with this genes over BRCA2 or no mutation at all. Even though only 18 % of women with this gene have died; only 2.8% of women with BRCA2 died. 55-65% of women who get BRC1 and 45% of women who get BRC1 mutation will get breast cancer by 70 years old. 5- 10% of all breast cancers are hereditary.
Since breast cancer at the same time a genetic trait and NOT a genetic trait women will still continue to get cancer. Since some of the cancers are developed during life and some are born with it, it would take a long time for cancer to diminish in a population. For example, if you are born with tan skin you can tan and get dark or get lighter but no matter what the gene for tan skin will still be passed on whether you lightened or darkened it. But people who tan and weren't born with tan skin; their children will not have the tan gene in them simply because their parents didn't carry the trait. It's almost the same for breast cancer. If its in your DNA to have cancer you can remove that from your DNA but if you develop cancer cells later in life you can remove them because its not in your DNA to have cancer and therefore will not be passed to your children.