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Child Abuse - Family Studies

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Sarah Marko

on 17 January 2013

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Transcript of Child Abuse - Family Studies

Definition Child Abuse “maltreatment of a child whereby the
survival, safety, self-esteem, growth and development of the child are endangered” Types Social Isolation:
No community organizations, little contact with relatives and/or friends
No support system to help them deal with family/social stress
Don’t conform with community values and standards Trends Causes Intergeneration Transmission of Violence:
same behaviors as parents
30% of abused children become abusive parents Sarah Marko A report of child abuse is made every 10 seconds 3.3 million reports of child abuse are made every
year in the U.S. Worldwide, there were 57 000 homicides among children under 15 years of age in 2000 ...most are under the age of four Neglect Emotional Physical Sexual Social Stress:
Unemployment, illness, poor housing conditions, large family size, new baby, disabled person in home, death of a family member
Living in poverty
Alcohol and drug use Impact on Individual Infant Child Teenager Adult/Parent Impact on Individual Infant Trust vs. mistrust (Erik Erikson) Effects on brain from physical, sexual, and emotional abuse: Shaken Baby Syndrome - can destroy brain tissue and tear blood vessels -can lead to seizures, loss of consciousness, or even death Persistent Fear Response - creates permanent memories that shape the child's perception of and response to the environment - regions of the brain involved in this response are frequently activated, other regions less frequently activated -Alters brain neurochemical balance; well-being and emotional stability impaired Impact on Individual Infant Disrupted Attachment Process - brains' resources focused on survival instead of building foundation for future growth Effects on brain from neglect:
malnutrition - stunted brain growth & slower passage of electrical signals in the brain
language may be delayed Effects on brain from Global Neglect (extreme lack of stimulation):
decreased brain growth Impact on Individual Child “Abused Children Stay Highly Attuned To Anger” study Psychologically: isolation, fear, and an inability to trust
Even children as young as 3 had depression and withdrawal symptoms Hyperarousal: Abused children's brains sensitize the pathways for the fear response and create memories that automatically subconsciously trigger that response. Adapted to a world that is unpredictable and dangerous Dissociation: a coping mechanism abused child are likely to use. Will retreat to the dissociative state when they encounter other stresses later in life. Impact on Individual Teen Why? more apparent impulsive behaviour - "prefrontal cortices are smaller less able to control fears, angers and other emotional reactions" Behavioural: Studies have found abused and neglected children to be at least 25 percent more likely to experience problems such as delinquency, teen pregnancy, low academic achievement, and mental health problems
Other increased chances of: Juvenile delinquency (11 times more likely to be arrested for criminal behavior as a juvenile), will smoke cigarettes, abuse alcohol, or take illicit drugs during their lifetime They are more likely to engage in sexual risk-taking as they reach adolescence, thereby increasing their chances of contracting a sexually transmitted disease Psychologically: more likely to develop antisocial traits Physically: the alterations in brain maturation (as child) have long-term consequences for cognitive, language, and academic abilities Impact on Individual Adult/Parent Psychologically: Poor mental and emotional health
In one long-term study, as many as 80% of young adults who had been abused met the diagnostic criteria for at least one psychiatric disorder at age 21 Impacts on Family Causes Continued Family Structure:
Single parent families
Spousal Abuse
Husband/wife domination Insecure attachment, the parent/caregiver becomes a source of danger or harm, leaving the child in irresolvable conflict Children rationalize that they caused the abuse in order to preserve an image of mother and father – those people on whom they must depend for care and protection - as “good.” May continue to use this way of rationalizing as an adult Societal Impacts Direct costs.
maintaining a child welfare system to investigate and respond to allegations of child abuse and neglect,
expenditures by the judicial, law enforcement, health, and mental health systems.
A 2001 report by Prevent Child Abuse America estimates these costs at $24 billion per year. Treatments
(Trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy, Abuse-focused cognitive behavioral therapy, Child-parent psychotherapy- improve the relationship)
April has been designated Child Abuse Prevention Month in the United States since 1983(funding for child abuse prevention) In conclusion... Child Abuse has a lasting impact on an individual. It affects them their whole life. More children are being abused than before - higher child abuse rates Most cases involve children younger than four;
this is the most important period of their life in terms of their development. Child abuse needs to end. Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect 2008 Prevention/Treatment The Canadian Centre for Abuse Awareness
Agencies and shelters across Canada that serve and/or house victims.
Individuals recommended or referred by qualified frontline professionals that work with people who have been severely abused or neglected Eli Johnson Why doesn't mom stop him? Doesn't she love me? Why is he doing this to me? What did I do wrong? I'm sorry. Parent: It is estimated approximately one-third of abused and neglected children will eventually victimize their own children This means the family may still remain intact even when the child is an adult. However, relationships are damaged Continue to seek love from parents, may still feel dependent upon parents Mix of emotions towards abuser; love, hatred, confusion fear Indirect costs.
include costs associated with juvenile and adult criminal activity, mental illness, substance abuse, and domestic violence.
They can also include loss of productivity due to unemployment and underemployment
cost of special education services, and increased use of the health care system.
Prevent Child Abuse America estimated these costs at more than $69 billion per year (2001). "Causes of Child Abuse." Causes of Child Abuse. Resource Centre, n.d. Web. 14 Jan. 2013. <http://www.frcmo.org/causes.html>. "Causes of Child Abuse." Causes of Child Abuse. Resource Centre, n.d. Web. 14 Jan. 2013. <http://www.frcmo.org/causes.html>. "Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect 2008." Public Health Agency of Canada. N.p., 17 Nov. 2010. Web. 14 Jan. 2013. <http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/cm-vee/csca-ecve/2008/cis-eci-08-eng.php>. "Understanding the Effects of Maltreatment on Brain Development." Child Welfare Information Gateway. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2009. Web. 14 Jan. 2013. <https://www.childwelfare.gov/pubs/issue_briefs/brain_development/effects.cfm>. "Long-Term Consequences of Child Abuse and Neglect." Child Welfare Information Gateway. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2008. Web. 14 Jan. 2013. <https://www.childwelfare.gov/pubs/factsheets/long_term_consequences.cfm>. "Long-Term Consequences of Child Abuse and Neglect." Child Welfare Information Gateway. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2008. Web. 14 Jan. 2013. <https://www.childwelfare.gov/pubs/factsheets/long_term_consequences.cfm>. "Understanding the Effects of Maltreatment on Brain Development." Child Welfare Information Gateway. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2009. Web. 14 Jan. 2013. <https://www.childwelfare.gov/pubs/issue_briefs/brain_development/effects.cfm>. "Study: Abused Children Stay Highly Attuned to Anger." University of Wisconsin. N.p., 14 Sept. 2005. Web. 14 Jan. 2013. <http://www.news.wisc.edu/11539>. "Understanding the Effects of Maltreatment on Brain Development." Child Welfare Information Gateway. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2009. Web. 14 Jan. 2013. <https://www.childwelfare.gov/pubs/issue_briefs/brain_development/effects.cfm>. "National Child Abuse Statistics." Prevention and Treatment of Child Abuse. ChildHelp, n.d. Web. 14 Jan. 2013. <http://www.childhelp.org/pages/statistics>. "Child Abuse and Neglect by Parents and Other Caregivers." World Report on Violence and Health. World Health Organization, n.d. Web. 14 Jan. 2013. <http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/world_report/en/>. "Long-Term Consequences of Child Abuse and Neglect." Child Welfare Information Gateway. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2008. Web. 14 Jan. 2013. <https://www.childwelfare.gov/pubs/factsheets/long_term_consequences.cfm>. "National Child Abuse Statistics." Prevention and Treatment of Child Abuse. ChildHelp, n.d. Web. 14 Jan. 2013. <http://www.childhelp.org/pages/statistics>. "Long-Term Consequences of Child Abuse and Neglect." Child Welfare Information Gateway. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2008. Web. 14 Jan. 2013. <https://www.childwelfare.gov/pubs/factsheets/long_term_consequences.cfm>. "Adult Survivors Continuing Relationships with Abusive Family." Continuing Relationships with Abusive Family. Pandora's Project, n.d. Web. 14 Jan. 2013. <http://www.pandys.org/articles/continuingrelationshipswithabusivefamily.html>. "Long-Term Consequences of Child Abuse and Neglect." Child Welfare Information Gateway. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2008. Web. 14 Jan. 2013. <https://www.childwelfare.gov/pubs/factsheets/long_term_consequences.cfm>. "Unforgottenangels." Unforgottenangels. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Jan. 2013. <http://unforgottenangels.wordpress.com/category/child-abuse-stories/>. The abuser is most likely to be the child's MOTHER. Destroys relationships within the family, loss of trust Thank you for watching Destroys the functioning of the family system "Children's Services." Types of Child Abuse. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Jan. 2013. <http://www3.hants.gov.uk/childrens-services/childrenandyoungpeople/child-protection/child-abuse.htm>. "About Who We Are." Canadian Centre for Abuse Awareness. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Jan. 2013. <http://abusehurts.com/about-us/>. "Treatment for Abused and Neglected Children: Infancy to Age 18." Child Welfare Information Gateway. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, n.d. Web. 14 Jan. 2013. <https://www.childwelfare.gov/pubs/usermanuals/treatmen/index.cfm>.



"About Who We Are." Canadian Centre for Abuse Awareness. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Jan. 2013. <http://abusehurts.com/about-us/>.

"Adult Survivors Continuing Relationships with Abusive Family." Continuing Relationships with Abusive Family. Pandora's Project, n.d. Web. 14 Jan. 2013. <http://www.pandys.org/articles/continuingrelationshipswithabusivefamily.html>.

"Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect 2008." Public Health Agency of Canada. N.p., 17 Nov. 2010. Web. 14 Jan. 2013. <http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/cm-vee/csca-ecve/2008/cis-eci-08-eng.php>.

"Causes of Child Abuse." Resource Centre. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Jan. 2013. <http://www.frcmo.org/causes.html>.

"Child Abuse and Neglect by Parents and Other Caregivers." World Report on Violence and Health. World Health Organization, n.d. Web. 14 Jan. 2013. <http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/world_report/en/>.

"Children's Services." Types of Child Abuse. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Jan. 2013. <http://www3.hants.gov.uk/childrens-services/childrenandyoungpeople/child-protection/child-abuse.htm>.

"Long-Term Consequences of Child Abuse and Neglect." Child Welfare Information Gateway. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2008. Web. 14 Jan. 2013. <https://www.childwelfare.gov/pubs/factsheets/long_term_consequences.cfm>.

"National Child Abuse Statistics." Prevention and Treatment of Child Abuse. ChildHelp, n.d. Web. 14 Jan. 2013. <http://www.childhelp.org/pages/statistics>.

"Study: Abused Children Stay Highly Attuned to Anger." University of Wisconsin. N.p., 14 Sept. 2005. Web. 14 Jan. 2013. <http://www.news.wisc.edu/11539>.

"Treatment for Abused and Neglected Children: Infancy to Age 18." Child Welfare Information Gateway. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, n.d. Web. 14 Jan. 2013. <https://www.childwelfare.gov/pubs/usermanuals/treatmen/index.cfm>.

"Understanding the Effects of Maltreatment on Brain Development." Child Welfare Information Gateway. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2009. Web. 14 Jan. 2013. <https://www.childwelfare.gov/pubs/issue_briefs/brain_development/effects.cfm>.

"Unforgottenangels." Unforgottenangels. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Jan. 2013. <http://unforgottenangels.wordpress.com/category/child-abuse-stories/>.

"What Is Child Abuse?" Royal Canadian Mounted Police. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Jan. 2013. <http://www.rcmp-grc.gc.ca/pubs/ccaps-spcca/chi-enf-eng.htm>. Works cited "What Is Child Abuse?" Royal Canadian Mounted Police. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Jan. 2013. <http://www.rcmp-grc.gc.ca/pubs/ccaps-spcca/chi-enf-eng.htm>. 78.5% more likely to be a parent Study: Understanding the Effects of Maltreatment on Brain Development- Child Welfare Information Gateway (physically, psychologically, and behaviorally) ACE Study, data collected from over 17 000 Kaiser patients using ACE score Mind and emotional content of the brain are created within first few years of life through mother infant bond 90% of a child's brain is developed through experiences People with childhood history of trauma abuse and neglect make up almost all of the entire criminal population in the US Amygdalae larger and more hyperactive, prefrontal cortices are smaller less able to control fears, angers and other emotional reactions The medial prefrontal cortex is the moral-decision module is also damaged, so impulses are released from control, violent and sexual impulses ACE study: obesity, drug use, alcoholics, attempted suicide, chronic depression, diseases (heart disease, cancer, chronic lung disease, liver disease), greater chance of unexplained symptoms, impaired childhood memory (dissociation), antidepressant prescriptions, impaired job performance, promiscuity... AND life expectancy is 20 years younger Infants who do not receive any attention, in some serious cases have been found to have black holes in right hemisphere It physically impacts their brain in a variety of ways with detrimental effects which essentially shapes their life
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