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Transcript of MEDICINE

b.C. 4.SURGERIES 1.000
53.TEST TUBE BABY 1.978 54.LUNG TRANSPLANT 1.987 55.ANTIRETROVIRALS 90s Nowadays 56.HUMAN GENOME 2.000 Throughout the ages, people have tried to find ways to cure diseases. In early times, it was believed that the disease was a punishment from the gods. Currently, scientists are constantly researching new ways to treat and prevent disease. Trepanation of the human skull is the removal of a piece of calvarium with out damage to the underlying blood-vessels, meninges and brain. In some parts of the world it is still practised in its early form by native medicine men. Evidence of trepanation has been found in prehistoric human remains from Neolithic times onward. Cave paintings indicate that people believed the practice would cure epileptic seizures, migraines, and mental disorders. Imhotep, regarded as the founder of Egyptian medicine, and author of the Edwin Smith papyrus about cures, ailments and anatomical observations.
Also recorded some attempts at rationalization, describing 48 clinical cases without mentioning causes or magical treatments and providing a rational approach for the treatment of diseases and injuries. The oldest book of Chinese medicine is the Huangdi Neijing (Canon of Internal Medicine), written as a dialogue between the Yellow Emperor and his family doctor. There we can find the healing properties of pomegranate and rhubarb. The first text, known as Basic Questions, covers the theoretical foundation of Chinese Medicine and its diagnostic methods. The second discusses acupuncture therapy in great detail. Two other texts have survived only partially. In the Ancient India fractures were treated, practiced cesareans, excision of tumors and cystotomy. Rhinoplasty, precursor of Cosmetic Surgery was performed because adulterers are punished by cutting off the nose. The Greek physician Hippocrates (460-377 b.C.) Teaches that the first duty a doctor is to procure the best for their patients and to follow rules set forth by his disciples. They form the basis of the Hippocratic Oath that doctors still today although it has suffered variations. Acupuncture is a collection of procedures which involves the stimulation of points on the body using a variety of techniques, such as penetrating the skin with needles that are then manipulated manually or by electrical stimulation. It is one of the key components of traditional Chinese medicine, and is among the oldest healing practices in the world. Galen, a Greek doctor, introduced the idea that a person's temperament depends on the balance of four fluids, or humors of the body: black bile (melancholy), yellow bile (choleric), blood (blood) and phlegm (phlegmatic). He also showed: How many muscles are controlled by the spinal cord.
Identified seven pairs of cranial nerves.
He showed that the brain is the organ responsible for controlling voice.
He described various infectious diseases
He showed that blood circulates through the arteries, and no air.
He gave great importance to the preservation and preparation methods of medicines. In Ancient times the leeches were collected in rivers for women which introduced themselves into the water and waited for the animals to adhere to your skin. Leeches were widely used until the nineteenth century as a remedy for everything is taken out of the body said the "devil vapors." Actually it was just a way to reduce bruising, inflammation and swelling. Andreas Vesalius (1514-64), author of one of the most influential books on human anatomy, "De humani corporis fabrica". He based his anatomical studies on direct observation, rejecting some anatomical errors present in the works of Galen, and it is considered the founder of modern anatomy. Zacharias Janssen (1588-1638). He came from a family that manufactured lenses. Although the origin of the microscope is a matter still uncertain, he is regarded as the inventor of the compound microscope (with two lenses), maybe with the help of his father. With the first microscope was discovered new colors, ducts and vessels in all bodies, new living things appeared in such quantities that outnumbered those previously known. Quinine is a natural alkaloid, white, crystalline, with antipyretic, antimalarial and analgesic. It tastes very bitter.
It was known for its healing properties by Native Americans, but not joined the European cultural heritage until they were discovered antimalarial properties. Currently is a compound frequently used in the adulteration of heroin. Sanctorius (1561-1636) was the Italian doctor and physiologist who introduced a numeric graduation to a previous invention made by Galileo. He also dealt with the metabolism and observed the changes reflected in body weight by altering diet, sleep, activity and disease. William Harvey (1578-1657). He was a physician who is credited with being the first person to correctly describe the properties of blood to be distributed throughout the body by the heart pumping.
Actually, it was the Spanish who Servetus described the pulmonary circulation a quarter century before Harvey was born, but he wrote it in a book of theology which was considered heresy. Consequently, almost all copies of it were burned. The bacteria were first observed by Anton van Leeuwenhoek using a single-lens microscope of his own design. Initially called animalcules and published his observations in a series of letters to the Royal Society. Marc von Plenciz (eighteenth century) said that diseases were caused by tiny organisms discovered by Leeuwenhoek. The name bacterium was introduced later, in 1828, to Ehrenberg, meaning small stick. In 1796 Edward Jenner started what later would result the vaccine: a test with samples pustule on the hand of a farmer infected with cowpox virus, and inoculated an 8 year old boy. After a period of 7 days the boy showed discomfort. A few days later, Jenner returned to perform several superficial pricks of smallpox, and the boy did not develop it. Luigi Galvani discovered something he named "animal electricity" when two different metals were connected in series with a frog's leg and to one another. Volta realized that the frog's leg served as both a conductor of electricity. Morphine is a powerful opiate drug commonly used in medicine as an analgesic. Morphine was named after the German pharmacist Friedrich Wilhelm Adam Sertürner in honor of Morpheus, the Greek god of dreams. Homeopathy is a type of alternative medicine characterized by the use of highly diluted preparations that aim to create the same symptoms experienced by the patient. It was conceived in the late eighteenth century by the Saxon physician Samuel Hahnemann (1755-1843) as a way to improve the body's vital spirit. Its fundamental premise is "like with like is cured," assuming that what causes certain symptoms can cure those same symptoms if the dose is low. The stethoscope was invented in France by the physician Rene Laënnec in 1819. It all started because of the large shyness and shame that Laënnec felt by bringing his ear to the chest of his patient. An American dentist called Horace Wells was observing a person inhaling laughing gas (nitrous oxide), when finding him still in full laughter, the subject comed up against a chair and seriously injured a leg without showing any painful reaction. Horace Wells began a series of experiments to demonstrate scientifically his successful discovery as an anesthetic. William Thomas Green Morton (1819-1868) was an American dentist and pioneer in anesthesia in surgery and dentistry. He carried out the first public demonstration of the use of ether as an anesthetic administered both by inhalation. The Scottish surgeon James Young Simpson experimented with chloroform and showed its anesthetic properties with no adverse symptoms develop in patients unlike ether which have strong side effects such as vomit. Elizabeth Blackwell (1821–1910) was the first woman to receive a medical degree in the United States and in the world. She was the first openly identified woman to graduate from medical school, a pioneer in promoting the education of women in medicine in the United States, and a social and moral reformer in both the United States and in England. Florence Nightingale (1820-1910), was a famous nurse, writer and British statistics, considered a pioneer of modern nursing and creator of the first conceptual model of nursing. She applied her knowledge of statistics to epidemiology and health statistics. She was the first woman admitted to the British Royal Statistical Society. Nightingale laid the foundation of professional nursing with the establishment, in 1860, her nursing school at St Thomas Hospital in London. Joseph Lister (1827-1912) was an English surgeon. He saw that the putrefaction of surgical wounds caused high mortality in hospitals. To avoid this, he developed Thanks to the discovery of antiseptics in 1865, Lister helped to greatly reduce the number of deaths from infections acquired in the operating room after the patients were undergoing surgery. surgical practice of asepsis and antisepsis with heat, improving patients' postoperative situation. Dunant saw the wounded died without assistance and, helped by people from nearby villages, was dedicated to their aid: convinced the local people to have respect for the wounded, without looking at which side of the conflict were.
The memory led him to devise ways to overcome similar situations. Dunant raised the idea of what will be the future of the Red Cross societies. Henry Dunant (1828-1909) traveled to northern Italy the same day that there armies faced Austrian, French and Piedmontese. By nightfall 40,000 men lay dead virtually stranded. Elizabeth Garrett Anderson (1836-1917) was a British doctor.
He was denied admission to medical school, she studied on her own in London hospitals, becoming the first woman in Britain to be licensed as a doctor, in the year 1865.
Anderson created a medical school for women in 1918, the clinic took its name being renamed the New Hospital for Women. Pasteur (1822-1895) used a new method to eliminate microorganisms that might degrade the wine or beer after tanks storing liquid tightly sealed in its temperature rose to 44 °C for a short period of time. Experimentally found that populations of bacteria of the genus Acetobacter is extremely reduced until it "almost sterile" food. Robert Koch (1843-1910) was a German doctor.
He became famous for discovering the tuberculosis bacillus in 1882 as well as the cholera bacillus in 1883 and the development of Koch's postulates. He received the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1905. He is considered the founder of bacteriology. Koch's work was to isolate the organism that causes this disease and grow in pure culture, using the crop to induce disease in laboratory animals, again isolating the germ of sick animals and comparing it to the original germ. The former coca bushes were taken in 1750 from South America to Europe. In 1859 he first reached the isolation of the alkaloid by Albert Niemann. In 1898 he succeeded in explaining the constitution and in 1902 by Richard Willstätter synthesis. From 1879 he used cocaine to treat morphine dependence. By 1884 it began to use as an anesthetic in clinics in Germany. The surgical instruments are sterilized by steam. The temperature used for the destruction of microorganisms is 100 ° C onwards. It is a term that involves the destruction of all microorganisms contained in an object. In operations doctors begin to use masks, gowns and hats. The physicist Wilhelm Röntgen discovered X-rays in 1895, while he was experimenting violet fluorescence to investiga the cathode rays. He determined that lightning created a very penetrating radiation, but invisible, which crssed large thicknesses of paper and even metal very dense. Photographic plates used to show that the objects were more or less transparent to X-rays depending on its thickness and he performed the first human x-ray, using his wife's hand. He called them "mystery ray", or "X-ray" because he didn´t know what they were. Psychoanalysis is a therapeutic practice founded by Viennese neurologist Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) around 1896. Refers to psychoanalytic therapy itself, that is a set of procedures and therapeutic techniques for the treatment of psychological conflicts such as neuroses and phobias. POLONIUM Marie Curie (1867-1934) and Pierre Curie (1859-1906), marriage of French chemists. They collaborated together in the study of radioactivity, discovered by the French physicist Henri Becquerel, that would work as the main result of the discovery of two new elements existence in 1902: polonium, a name that was given in memory of Marie's homeland , and radio. Karl Landsteiner (1838-1943). Austrian pathologist. He discovered the existence of different blood groups, which helps to explain the causes of the inconsistency and prevent its fatal consequences. In 1901 concludes that there are three types of blood cells, the A, B and O. In 1903 adds a fourth group, the group AB, with the two antigens and no antibodies. In 1920 the English biochemist F. Hoapkins found in food were certain organic substances essential for animal development. This was discovered when he was doing experiments with rats: he had some of them with a diet based on purified products contending substances until that moment considered necessary for nutrition. Rats stopped their growth, and only restarted when they were given daily a small amount of fresh milk. This and other similar acts showed the presence of vitamins, name proposed by biochemist Casimir Funk. exposed by craniectomy. The EGG is based on recording the bioelectrical brain activity at rest, waking or sleeping with a team of electroencephalography. Birmick Richard Caton (1842-1926), doctor of Liverpool (UK) in 1875 presented his findings about bioelectric phenomena in the cerebral hemispheres of mice and It was founded by Marie Stopes (1880-1958) in London. She was a British author, palaeobotanist, campaigner for women's rights and pioneer in the field of birth control. She was the wife of Humphrey Verdon Roe, with whom she founded the first birth control clinic in Britain. Frederick G. Bantin in 1921, along with Charles Best discovered the hormone insulin. For this discovery he was awarded in 1923 the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. INSULIN Alexander Fleming (1881-1955) was a Scottish scientist famous for being the first to observe the effects of penicillin antibiotic derived from the fungus Penicillium
chrysogenum. Also discover the antimicrobial enzyme called lysozyme. The iron lung was used for the first time on October 21, 1928 at Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, in an unconscious girl with respiratory
She recovered a few seconds later of being laid in the chamber. The first kidney transplant was made in Chicago (USA)
Since 1950, several European and American teams proceeded with human renal transplantation from human cadavers. CONTROL The pill for birth control for women is developed by Frank Benjamin Colton (March 3, 1923 to 25 November Its use is generalized in the early 1960's. It is developed the first endoscope. This consisted of a metal cylinder that had in its middle a basis for supporting a candle and a reflector that concentrated the light into a mirror. The current instrument, created by Basil Hirschovitz in 1957, use optical fibers for flexible endoscope so they can comfortably use in surgery. The first successful transplant was performed by a surgical team in Boston (USA) in 1954. On The first was developed by Jonas Salk, first tested in 1952 and was made known by Salk on April 12, 1955. The Salk vaccine for polio is an injected dose of inactivated poliovirus or dead. The second shot was an oral vaccine developed by Albert Sabin using attenuated poliovirus. James Watson and Francis Crick transformed biology with the discovery of DNA in 1953, and took the first step in what would later progress of the human genome and cloning of organisms. Watson, was an American zoologist, while Crick was an English physicist. This progress gave to both Watson and Crick the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1962. December 3, 1967 South African Dr. Christian N. Barnard performed the first heart transplant operation. The patient survived 18 days. The first cardiorespiratory auxiliary machine was developed for use in cardiac surgery. On October 8, 1958 in Stockholm, Sweden is implanted the first pacemaker in the problems. 2003). world. The device failed after three hours. A second device was implanted later and lasted for two days. Computed tomography (CT), which produces more detailed images of internal organs that X-rays, is introduced. The first of a whole body CT was achieved in 1974. TOMOGRAPHY 51.NUCLEAR MAGNETIC
RESONANCE (NMR) Raymond Vahan Damadian, Armenian-American doctor, its investigation of sodium and potassium in living cells led to his first experiments with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), which led him to propose the first body MR scanner in 1970. Damadian discovered that tumors and normal tissue can be distinguished in vivo by nuclear magnetic resonance. Damadian was the first to perform a full body scan of a human being in 1977 to diagnose cancer. The bionic arm is placed for the first time a victim of a traffic accident in Australia. Currently bionic engineering can bring much understanding of biological systems is of importance to supply electromechanical organs to match or even improve the functionality of the original organ. Louise Joy Brown (July 25, 1978, UK) is known for being the first person born through in vitro fertilization. Her birth was surrounded by much controversy, due to be the first case. He has been through multiple revisions to check their health and show that this type of fertilization is as safe as natural. At age 28, she had her first child by normal fertilization. John Cooper in Baltimore (USA) performed the first successful lung transplant and the first double lung transplant. The antiretroviral drugs, a cocktail of drugs, get effectively reduce the action of HIV in those infected. Scientists presented the "draft" of the human genome, the sequence of thousands of individual nucleic acids that make up a DNA molecule. The decoding of the genome could facilitate treatments for inherited diseases. Many and important are the advances that have been developed over the last thirty years through accidental discoveries and perseverance of many researchers. There are many to mention, for example:
Advances applied to surgical interventions.
Non invasive surgery.
Drugs for HIV.
Stem cell research.
Cancer therapies.
Open heart operations.
Minimally Invasive and Robotic Techniques Revolutionize Surgery.
... Nowadays Of course we can not forget the doctors and scientists who have made such great strides. Some of the most important are the following: Santiago Ramón y Cajal.
Gregorio Marañón.
Mariano Gómez Ulla.
Pedro Cavadas.
Pedro Belou. ANDERSON SANTIAGO RAMÓN Y CAJAL Santiago Ramón y Cajal (May 1852 – 18 October 1934) was a Spanish pathologist, histologist, neuroscientist, and Nobel laureate. He is considered by many to be the father of modern neuroscience because of his investigations of the microscopic structure of the brain. GREGORIO MARAÑÓN GÓMEZ ULLA MARIANO Gregorio Marañón (Madrid, May 19, 1887 - March 27 de 1960) was an endocrine doctor, scientist, historian, Spanish writer and thinker, whose works in the scientific and historical had a great international importance. Over a long period led the chair of endocrinology at the Hospital Central de Madrid. He was academic of five of the eight Royal Academy of Spain (of language, of history, of the Fine Arts, Medicine National Exact, Physical and Natural Sciences). Mariano Gómez Ulla (Santiago de Compostela, November 6, 1877 - Madrid, November 24, 1945) Spanish military surgeon. Present in the battlefields of the wars in Africa, the Spanish Civil War and in World Wars I and II, where he developed an intense care. He was president of the Medical College of Spain. (Related to 45) (Related
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