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around 1000 years ago. The Dutch navigator Abel Tasman and his men were the first Europeans to reach New Zealand, in 1642.
In 1769, Captain James Cook claimed the country for the British crown.
From 1840 onwards, the European population grew very quickly and by 1858 it outnumbered the Maori population.
New Zealand was subsequently populated in three waves by British, Australian, and Scottish immigrants. By 1900, the Maori people had lost the majority of their lands. The English language is not an indigenous language of New Zealand; it was established by colonists during the 19th century. New Zealand is a highly monolingual country. English is the dominant and a de facto language, spoken by most New Zealanders (95.90%). It is co-official together with Māori (4.2%) and New Zealand Sign Language (NZSL) (0.6%). Phonetic variations StE vowels Diphthongs
The tongue starts relatively low in the mouth and moves to a higher position.
Others are realised with the tongue starting relatively high in the mouth, and moving down toward the centre.
ear = air
cheer = chair
beer = bear Intonation
Rise at the end of sentences that are not questions.
Visitor: Can you tell me where the grocery store is
Local: There’s a Dairy down a block And then you turn right And it’s second on the left Stress
Tendency to follow British patterns.
la’boratory vs. ‘laboratory,
alu’minium vs. a’luminium.
Some words follow a more American pattern ‘Spectator, ‘dictator and ‘frustrate.
An ‘import vs. to ‘import
An ‘export, vs. to ‘export
An ‘contract vs. to ‘contract
An ‘object’ vs. to ‘object Rhythm
Stress-timed language. - The British spelling is almost universally used.
- The spelling of "-our" is always used: Colour, favour, neighbour...
- New Zealand English, like Australian English, mainly prefers the form "-ise": Advise, summarise, analyse...
- New Zealand favours fiord over fjord. - In 1840 it is estimated that there were about 2,000 European residents in New Zealand and about 70,000 Maori Maori loan words coming into English.
- There were three main categories of early Maori loan words: Maori words for flora and fauna; Maori words for Maori society and cultural practices; Maori words for place names and proper names. Spelling Lexis Word formation:
Some of the farming words which originated in New Zealand have come about through the combining of two words into new words. Semantic Changes:
The early settlers in New Zealand frequently used English names for species of New Zealand flora and fauna which were similar to British varieties but not the same.
In some cases the original meaning of a word remains in New Zealand but a new meaning develops and co-exists.
beech trees, robin, bush, creek... Verbs
- The casual speech of many young NZers does not contain different forms for the past tense and the participle for some of these verbs; they use the participle for both meanings.
- Verbs which can take -t or -ed in the past tense and/or participle. Grammar American English use the –ed form.
British English use the -t form.
NZers use both the –t and the –d final forms for both the past tense and the participle. The use of gotten is restricted to descriptions of activities or events,
and cannot describe states.
‘Should’ve’ or ‘should of’ is treated as inseparable.
“Nigel should of not done that”
“What would of she done?”
- Negative concord the use of two or more negative markers.
“You shouldn’t never have attitudes like that”
- Frequent use of the form “ain’t” in colloquial speech.
“He was going yeah mate, I ain’t got time for pain”
- In some contexts in English in which both singular and plural verbs are possible.
AmE singular verb (The crowd is cheering) British English choice singular / plural
(The crowd are cheering).
Use of ‘is’ or ‘was’ with existential-there plurals.
“We was always in the dark that those trips took place”
- Tendency to say “gonna” instead of “going to”.
“There’s gonna be three months where I’m not really earning money” Pronouns
- Use of the ‘Singular they’
“And like you go to class . they say to buddy up with someone to get the notes for you someone gets the notes for you alright . but it’s hard getting them out of them to copy them during class time cause usually you have to refer back to what you done the day before so it’s hard to get the notes off them . and then sometimes they say they didn’t do any work and you ask someone else and they have done work . so . yeah.”
- Their own second person plural pronoun ‘yous’ (informal)
“I said look – if yous want me to stress out majorly you’ll make me wait – if yous don’t get your arses into gear and get it sorted out . . .”
- The range of pronoun case choices used by New Zealanders when using conjoined pronouns in subject position.
“…But me and him carried on”
“…and he and I went to New Caledonia” Adjectives and Adverbs
- Use of double comparatives.
“Financially they’re no more wealthier than we are.”
“ . . . makes it more clearer with heaps more bass.”
- Use of ‘real’ as an adjectival modifier.
“He just was real scared of the pain” Hay, Jennifer; Maclagan, Margaret A.; Gordon, Elizabeth (2008) New Zealand English. Edinburgh, GBR: Edinburgh University Press
http://web.ku.edu/~idea/ Sources Thank You! Let's see how a kiwi sounds like!