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ICS Week 4

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Louise Kesterson

on 26 February 2018

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Transcript of ICS Week 4

Social Darwinism 'survival of the fittest'.
Gene studies and Eugenics.
Case for Nurture
What is Socialisation?
Sociological Perspective:
Theories of Socialisation
Key Theories:
Agencies of Socialisation:
"Socialisation is the process through which the individual learns the culture of a society and internalises its norms, values and perspectives in order to know how to behave and communicate. Socialisation is the process through which we acquire a sense of self" (Poole, 2007).
Cultural Identity
“Cultural identity may be considered as the inner vision that a person possesses of himself as a member of a cultural group and as a unique human being. It forms the core of the beliefs, social forms, and personality dimensions that characterize distinct cultural realities and world view for an individual”. (Sue et al, 1996, p. 178)

What is Socialisation?
Primary and Secondary.
Theories of Socialisation.
Conformity and Individuality.

Process through which we learn to fit into society.
Learn norms and rules of society and patterns of our culture.
Take on social 'roles' based on societal expectations.
Lifelong process.
"Socialisation refers to how culture is transmitted or reproduced from one generation to the next. It is the way we learn to develop patterns of behaviour, experiences, and identities that are relevant to our particular culture. The process of socialisation starts at birth and continues until death" (van Krieken et at. 2005).
Nature vs Nurture
Is personality and behaviour a product of nature - our biological heredity?
Is our personality and behaviour a product of nurture - our social environment?
Case Study
Case for Nature
An individuals social development is influenced by a number of agencies:
Peer groups
Religious Groups
Cultural background
Mass media
Government Departments
Political structure
* An 'agent' of socialisation is an individual person like a parent or teacher.
Primary Socialisation
Primary Socialisation
"The socialisation of babies and young children which primarily occurs within the family" (Poole, 2007, p.102).
Secondary Socialisation
Secondary Socialisation
"The socialisation of children by their peers and by institutions such as schools" (Poole, 2007, p. 102).
What is a Role?
Developing language, learning reading, writing, perception, thinking and counting.
Learning moral standards, attitudes, aspirations and identities (e.g. 'wife', 'husband').
Learning how to control feelings and desires.
Learning social roles and and how to behave in role-specific ways.
TV number one leisure activity.
Influences behaviour (violence and aggression - Albert Bandura - 'Bo Bo Doll').
Influence perception of self and other.
Appropriate behaviour.
Teacher = key figure.
'Latent functions'.
Identity formation.
Social skills.
New values, attitudes and beliefs.
'Cultural Identity' (Matsumoto & Juang, 2008).
Inner vision of self in relation to cultural group.
Influence identity.
Moral beliefs, attitudes and behaviours.
Secondary Socialisation
Key Agencies
Psychoanalytic Theory
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
Psychosocial Theory
Erik Erikson (1902 - 1994)
Nurture determines individuals behaviour.
All behaviour is learned (blank slate).
Stimuli - Response Theory
Psychoanalytic Theory
Social Learning Theory
Psychosocial Theory
Social Interaction Theory
Human behaviour shaped largely by
Human Psyche
'Pleasure Principle'.
Deep drives and impulses.
Threatens 'societal order' - chaos.
'Reality Principle'.
Balances desires of ID with social expectations of Superego.
Self as influenced by societal standards, values, norms and expectations.
Right and wrong.
'Repressiveness of society'.
3 Parts
"The conflict between the id and the superego occurs in the subconscious mind; yet it shapes human behaviour… The id demands gratification for biological desires, the superego forces constant awareness of how society perceives one’s actions, and the ego negotiates an uneasy peace between the two parties. As the stabilised three-part self interacts with others, the rules of socialisation emerge" (Anderson & Taylor, 2006, p. 92).
Identity shaped by early childhood experiences.
Development is product of ongoing interaction - or conflict - between individual needs and abilities and social expectations and demand.
First Year
Trust vs Mistrust
Age 1 to 3
Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt
Age 3 to 5
Initiative vs Guilt
Age 6 to 12
Industry vs Inferiority
Eight Stages Psychosocial Development
Puberty and Adolescence
Identity vs Role Confusion
Young Adulthood
Intimacy vs Isolation
Middle Adulthood
Generativity vs Stagnation
Ego Integrity vs Despair
Late Adulthood
Social Learning Theory
Jean Piaget (1896-1980)
Identity formed as learned response to social stimuli.
Behaviour and attitude develop based on reinforcement from others.
Behaviour can be changed by altering social environment.
Sensorimotor Stage
First two years.
Five senses.
Pre-operational Stage
Age 2 to 6.
Learn language and symbols.
Cannot generalise concepts.
Concrete Operational Stage
Age 7 to 11.
Develop logic.
Cause and effect.
Take perspective of others.
Formal Operational Stage
Age 12 onwards.
Critical thinking
Abstract thinking.
Hypothetical thinking.
Four Stages of Cognitive Development
Ivan Pavlov (1849 to 1936):
Classical conditioning - Pavlov's dog.
John B. Watson (1878 to 1958):
Classical conditioning - Little Albert.
Burrhus Fredric (B.F.) Skinner (1904-1990)
Operant conditioning - Reward and punishment.
Pavlov's Dog
Operant Conditioning
Symbolic Interactionism
George Herbert Mead (1863 to 1931)
Charles Horton Cooley (1864 to 1929)
The individuals who's judgements of us are important to us.
All agents of socialisation.
Act based on meaning we give to things.
We give meaning to things based on our social interactions.
Meaning not permanent - can change due to experiences.
The 'Looking-Glass' Self
Use others as mirror to construct self-image.
Self-concept develops through interactions with others and how others view us or we
we are perceived.
If able to see self as others do can respond accordingly.
Significant Others
Role Taking
Play out scenes in mind and anticipate the reactions of others.
Involves Three Stages:
Imitation Stage:
- Imitate but don't understand behaviour of others.
Play Stage:
-Child begins to play roles (mother, teacher, policeman).
-Imagine how others would think.
Game Stage:
-Take on multiple roles.
-Behave according to norms and expectations of group.
-'Generalised Other'.
Case for Agency?!?
1952 Genes made of DNA.
1953 Double helix structure of DNA.
Identical twin studies.
2001 Human Genome Project.
"The Human Genome Project supports both nature and nurture playing major roles in human development" (Kornblum, 2008).
Theories of socialisation aim to highlight how human beings are shaped by society and that our lives are at least partially socially constructed.
Sociological enquiry focuses on how society influences human development throughout life.
Feral Children
Oral Stage
(0-1 years)
Anal Stage
(11/2-3 years)
Phallic Stage
(3-6 years)
Latency Stage
(6-12 years)
Genital Stage
(12 years onwards)
Psychosexual Stages:
Secondary Socialisation.
Epigenetics - nature and nurture.
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