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World History - Unit 1, Chapter 13 The Renaissance and Reformation 1300-1650
Transcript of World History - Unit 1, Chapter 13 The Renaissance and Reformation 1300-1650
Renaissance basically means "rebirth"
Societies shifted from agrarian (farming) communities to urban societies based on the trading of goods and services.
Creative thinking and new technologies of this time period gave people the ability to understand and describe their world more accurately.
What was the Renaissance?
Education and science were given more importance.
Increased spirit of adventure and curiosity
Humanism was at the heart of the Renaissance. Humanists studied worldly subjects like history, poetry, grammar, and rhetoric instead of religion.
Mankind and the achievements that men were capable of became more important.
Rome is the capital city of Italy and it is also the capital of the Roman Catholic Church.
The Roman Catholic Church, at this time, was the biggest patron of the arts. Many artists worked in Rome and Italy.
Italy's location allowed them to trade with many different people and cultures.
Italy: Cradle of the Renaissance
Art changed dramatically during the Renaissance. The human experience became the dominant theme of art during this time period. Artists looked back to the days of the Greeks and Romans as inspiration.
Michelangelo, Raphael, and Leonardo da Vinci were among the most famous artists of the Renaissance.
Leonardo da Vinci made the Mona Lisa and The Last Supper paintings
Michelangelo made the famous marble masterpieces; David and Pieta.
Raphael's most famous work is The School of Athens.
Which piece of art do you think is from the Renaissance time period? Why?
The Renaissance in Northern Europe
In 1455 Johann Gutenberg of Germany invented the movable printing press. The first book he printed was the Bible.
This started the printing revolution and increased literacy rates because more people had access to books.
The printing press also advanced education dramatically. How do you you think it advanced education?
The northern Renaissance began in the prosperous cities of Flanders, a center of trade for Northern Europe.
Painters of this time and place included the common man more often in their work than painters of the past.
Albrecht Durer, sometimes called "Leonardo of the North" perfected the technique of engraving.
Engraving is when an artist etches a design on a metal plate with acid.
Northern European humanists and writers also helped spread Renaissance ideas.
Many writers of this time began to write in the everyday language of the common people and not in Latin (only understood by scholars or clergymen).
A Dutch priest named Erasmus was a very important scholar of the day. He wrote texts in a number of different subjects and called for the translation of the Bible into the vernacular or common language.
Perspective in Art
Heliocentric Model of Universe
"On the Structure of the Human Body" the first accurate and detailed study of human anatomy
Inventions and Innovations
Another key figure of the Renaissance was Shakespeare.
From 1590 to 1613 he wrote 37 plays that are still performed around the world today.
Shakespeare's plays were about universal themes in everyday, realistic settings.
His plays were written in the common language of the people
More than 1,700 words appeared for the first time in his works!
The Protestant Reformation
The Renaissance awakened many people of the social injustices and a society that did not make sense to the common people.
People used Humanist ideas to begin questioning a central force in their lives, the Church.
Beginning in the late Middle Ages, the Church had become increasingly caught up in worldly affairs and overstepping their bounds.
The Church fought to expand and protect its own interests in a number of different ways, including war.
Just like other Renaissance rulers, popes led lavish lives and supported the arts in part by hiring artists to beautify churches.
To finance these projects Church services and fees had to be raised.
Some clergymen sold indulgences.
An indulgence was a lessening of the time a soul would have to spend in purgatory, a place where souls too impure to enter heaven atoned for sins committed during their lifetimes.
In the Middle Ages, the Church had granted indulgences only for good deeds.
By the late 1400s, however, indulgences could be bought with money.
Many Christians protested against this practice.
In 1957 protests against the Roman Catholic Church abuses erupted into a full-scale revolt!
Martin Luther, a German monk and professor of theology, triggered this revolt.
In 1517, a priest set up a pulpit on the outskirts of Wittenberg a German town. He offered indulgences to any Christian who contributed money for the rebuilding of a nearby church.
This priest claimed that these indulgences would ensure entry into heaven not only for those who purchased the indulgence but their dead relatives too...
Martin Luther saw this as the last straw because the priest was basically saying that poor peasants would not be able to get into heaven.
He wrote what is known as the 95 Theses which were 95 arguments against indulgences. Martin Luther argued that indulgences had no basis in the Bible and the pope had no authority to release souls from purgatory and that Christians could be saved only through faith.
The 95 Theses spread like wildfire all over Europe where they stirred up heated debates.
The Church demanded that Luther give up his views but he refused so the Catholic Church excommunicated Martin Luther.
A new religion was formed from Martin Luther's teachings...Lutheranism.
Let's look at the chart on page 426 to compare Lutheranism and Catholicism.
By 1530, the Lutherans were using a new name, Protestant, for those who "protested" papal authority. Today almost all sects of Christianity, other than Catholics, are considered Protestants.
There was a Peasants' Revolt in 1524 that lasted until 1526
This revolt included about 300,000 peasants who were revolting because they wanted social and economic reforms to the hardships that were apart of their everyday lives.
About 100,000 peasants died in this revolt and many more were injured or left homeless.
Another reformer in Europe during this time was John Calvin.
Calvin believed many of the same things Martin Luther believed and he gained many supporters which further deteriorated the Catholic Church's power during this time period.
Reformation Ideas Spread
Hundreds of new Protestant sects, or religious groups that had broken away from an established church, sprang up.
In England, the Catholic Church and the government of England were traditionally very close and were allies with each other.
However, when King Henry VIII wanted to annul, or cancel, his marriage the pope refused and Henry VIII broke with the Catholic Church and formed the Church of England which became the official church and religion of England.
Those who questioned the King's decision to break from the Church and establish a new national religion were convicted of treason and executed!
After King Henry VIII died his nine-year-old son Edward VI inherited the throne.
Why would a nine-year-old be able to become King?!
King Edward died in his teens so his half-sister Mary Tutor became queen and she was determined to return England to the Catholic faith. One of the things she did was round up hundreds of English Protestants and burned them at the stake for heresy.
Mary Tudor dies just five years into her reign...and Elizabeth the daughter of Henry VIII and Ann Boleyn becomes the Queen of England.
She has seen the religious swing back and forth between Catholicism and Protestantism and wants to find a compromise.
This compromise led to relative peace between Catholics and Protestants in England...many other nations in Europe were tore apart because of the lack of compromise and the endless battles between Catholics and Protestants.
The Catholic Reformation
The Catholic Church responded to the Protestant Reformation by reforming their own Church and church policies.
Pope Paul III led the Catholic Reformation, sometimes called the Counter-Reformation.
The Pope called the Council of Trent, a collection of cardinals, together to discuss reforms.
The council reaffirmed many church teachings but also took steps to end abuses and corruption.
Legacy of the Catholic Reformation
By 1600, the majority of Europeans remained Catholic
Many Protestants returned to the Catholic faith because of the Catholic Reformation
However, Protestantism gained a major foothold on the continent and remains a dominant religion in Europe and elsewhere in the world.
Religious conflict between Catholics and Protestants would continue to led to war and conflict throughout much of Europe during this time period.
Another important theme to remember from this time period is the persecution of religious minorities...
During the battles between Catholics and Protestants people who belonged to other religious sects such as Anabaptists and Jews were persecuted against. Sometimes people were thought to be witches and they were persecuted as well.
Between 1450 and 1750 tens of thousands of men and women died as victims of witch hunts.
When the wars of religion came to an end, the persecution of witches also declined.
Jews were especially mistreated during this time period.
Jews were kicked out of Spain in 1492.
Martin Luther called for Jews to be kicked out of Christian lands and their synagogues to be burned.
In 1516, a large city in Italy ordered all Jews to live in a separate quarter of the city called a ghetto...other Italian cities also required this.
The Scientific Revolution
The Renaissance and the Reformation facilitated the breakdown of the medieval worldview.
The Scientific Revolution pointed toward a new way of thinking and understanding the world that was profoundly different from Medieval thinking.
A central belief of the Scientific Revolution was that mathematical laws governed nature and the universe. Therefore, they could be known, managed, and shaped by people!
Up until the mid-1500s, scientists thought that the Earth was the center of the universe...
But in 1543, Nicolaus Copernicus proposed that the universe was actually centered around the sun and not the Earth which was contrary to common sense of the time and the Catholic Church's teaching. Later Gailieo Galilei suggested that the Earth moves around the sun and that the sun is the center of the universe.
An Englishman Francis Bacon and the Frenchman Rene Descartes each devoted himself to understanding how truth is determined...
Both of these men argued that truth is not known at the beginning of inquiry but at the end, after a long process of investigation.
These discoveries and inquisitions of these two men led to the scientific method.
There were also LOTS of other scientific advances during the Renaissance.
Scientists performed autopsies to learn more about the body.
In the 1540s, French physician Ambroise Pare developed a new and more effective ointment for preventing infection. He also developed new surgical techniques, introduced the use of artificial limbs, and invented several scientific instruments!
During this time period Isaac Newton formed his theory on gravity.
Newton came up with many other theories and discoveries many of which we still use today like calculus.
Italian writers of the Renaissance reflected the curiosity and interest in philosophy and wrote about other scholarly topics like math, sociology, anthropology, anatomy, and much more.
Machiavelli was one of the most famous writers of the Renaissance. He wrote a guide on how to gain and maintain power. Machiavelli stressed that the end justifies the means and he urged rulers to use whatever methods were necessary to achieve their goals...so he wrote all about leaders.
The Prince Video:
Lets look at page 417 in your textbook. Read the text from The Prince and answer the two questions at the bottom of the page.
Leonardo da Vinci was an excellent example of a Renaissance man...
A Cultural Reawakening
Now let's look at a primary source...
You will read part of Martin Luther's "95 Theses"
Activity: as a class let's create a flowchart for this section of Chapter 13...we will use the red headings in your book to write down some of the major events or themes from those topics.
Why did the Catholic Church remain unchallenged for so long?
Before the Renaissance, people did not think of denying the Church's authority.
People had different criticisms of Catholicism and different ideas about what the ideal Christian faith should be.
Why did Protestants develop many different sects, rather just embracing Lutheranism?
What does the term Counter-Reformation imply about the causes of this movement?
The Counter-Reformation was a specific response to the Protestant Reformation.
Why is the scientific method important?
Why might a rigorous scientific method have particularly appealed to non-scientists?
Because non-scientists could be assured that scientific conclusions were based on an established method of inquiry rather than on the idiosyncrasies of a particular scientist.
Scientists are constantly developing and refining new technologies such as MRIs, computers, and lasers to give us more accurate views of the body.
How is knowledge of the human body still expanding today?
Activity: I want you to write one paragraph that is 6-8 sentences long explaining which invention you think is the most important and why. You should answer these questions in your paragraph.
What invention is the most important?
Why is the most significant?
Who invented it?
How do we use this invention today or how has this invention led to other inventions that we use today?
How has science changed people's lives throughout history?