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IGCSE Physical Education 1.1. Skill

IGCSE Physical Education Cambridge Syllabus: Unit 1 Factors Affecting Performance - 1.1. Skill
by

Rob Myatt

on 22 September 2014

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Transcript of IGCSE Physical Education 1.1. Skill

There are many ways to learn a new skill:

Videos.

Photo sequences.

Diagrams.

Demonstrations.

Descriptions.
How do you learn a new skill?
Why is it important?

It allows the performer to understand four things:
Feedback
KNOWLEDGE OF PERFORMANCE:

Focuses solely on the positive/negative aspects of performance.
Does not take the result into consideration.

WHY IS THIS IMPORTANT?!?
Types of Feedback
DEFINITION:
Information received as a basis for improvement.
Types of Feedback
OUTPUT:

The physical process of completing the skill following the thinking process.

The result(s) of the action are stored for future reference.
Simple Information Processing Model
INPUT:

Take in information through our senses.

Stored in the short-term memory.
Simple Information Processing Model
Is there a medium between Open and Closed Skills?
Closed Skills:
Open Skills:
Types of Skill
Simple & straightforward.

Usually learnt at a young age.

Important to perform basic skills before attempting higher levels.

Examples?
Types of Skill
‘A SKILL IS A LEARNED ABILITY TO

BRING ABOUT THE RESULT YOU

WANT WITH MAXIMUM

CERTAINTY AND EFFICIENCY’

Definition of Skill
1.1. Skill
Considerations:
Limited channel capacity
Overload
Only do a little

Simple instructions

Simple demonstration
How do you learn a new skill?
Involve the large muscles of the body that enable such functions as:
Walking.
Kicking.
Sitting upright.
Lifting.
Throwing a ball.
Involve the small muscles of the body that enable such functions as:
Writing.
Grasping small objects.
Fastening clothing.
Gross Motor Skills:
Fine Motor Skills:
Types of Skill
Different activities require different forms of teaching/coaching.

WHY?
Look at the photos.

1. Does each sport clearly have open and/or closed skills?

2. What are those skills?

3. When are they used?

BASIC SKILLS
COMPLEX SKILLS
Take a long time to learn.

Involve high levels of co-ordination & control.

Sport specific /
non-transferable.

Examples?
Factors that affect skill level - HELP AND HINTS!
Age & Maturity

Motivation

Anxiety

Arousal Conditions

Facilities

Environment

Teaching & Coaching
Factor
Reason
Physical maturation / body control change.
Skills have to be adapted to the demands of the situation.
High level of cognitive skill.

Examples?
Constantly changing, unstable environment.
Not affected by the sporting environment.
Low level of cognitive skill

Examples?
Constant, unchanging environment.
Running
Dodging an opponent
Smash shot in badminton
Lay up in basketball
Want to do it / don't want to do it?
Level of fear/anticipation before an event.
Boredom/apathy to anxiety/over-excited.
Quality of items used.
Weather. Opposition.
Experience.
Precise.
High levels of hand-eye coordination.
Not very precise but fundamental.
A person's gross motor skills depend on both muscle tone and strength.
Example
= Archery
Example
= Butterfly (Swimming)
This has 4 stages.

INPUT


DECISION MAKING


OUTPUT


FEEDBACK
Simple Information Processing Model
DECISION MAKING:

A decision is made!

Compare information in the short-term memory with previous experiences stored in the long-term memory.

The decision is carried out = SKILL IS PERFORMED!
FEEDBACK:

Sensory and verbal feedback are provided.

Allows the person to access the skill positively/negatively, store the process in long-term memory and adjust for a better future outcome.
ACTIVITY:
Write an example of a four-stage process using a sport of your choice.
INTRINSIC:
Comes from the performer .

Examples?
EXTRINSIC:
Comes from sources other than the performer.

Examples?
Coach, Teacher, Manager, Assessor, Crowd/Audience
Come from the senses!
KNOWLEDGE OF RESULTS:

Focuses solely on a positive/negative outcome of the final result.
Does not take the level of performance into consideration.

WHY IS THIS IMPORTANT?!?
All feedback can be given and received visually, verbally and/or manually.
The reason for positive outcomes of actions.
The reason for negative outcomes of actions.
The overall perspective of their performance.
The methods to change future performances.
Skill Retention:
First movement = Short-term memory
Continual practice = Long-term memory
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