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Epigenetics: The Effect of your Hormones on Gene Expression

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Josefina M.

on 4 June 2015

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Transcript of Epigenetics: The Effect of your Hormones on Gene Expression

Stress
Chronic Stress
Depression
Bipolar Disorder
Other Mental Illnesses
Chromatin Structure
Unravel the chromatin
Changes in gene exposure
Physiological traits
Behavioral traits
Passed down parent to child
Behavioral Epigentics: Hormones as Epigenetic Mechanisms
Hormones as epigenetic signals has been one of the more recent advances in the study of epigenetics,focusing mostly on environmental stimuli.
Histone Modification
Forced swim
Acute restraint stress
Epigenetics: The Effect of your Hormones and Stress on Gene Expression
Depression
16% of all people
Only 40% genetic
Major environmental factors
Increased Stress: Increased Depression
Stress
LHPA
Long term consequences
CRH-Corticotropin-releasing hormone
GC-glucocorticosteroids
Apoptosis
Neurogenesis
Chromatin modifications
Introduction to Epigentics
What is epigenetics?

Environment
Hormones
Social
Nutritional
Toxicological exposures
Prenatally
Postnatally
Adulthood
Josefina Mendez

Epigenetics is the "study of changes in organisms caused by modification of gene expression rather than the genetic code itself"
Mechanisms of Epigenetics
1.DNA Methylation
2.Histone Modification
DNA Methylation
Histone Modification
Works Cited

Histones
proteins
Chromatin
Nucleosome
146 base pairs of DNA
4 types histone proteins (H2A, H2B, H3, and H4)--8 in total.

Linker Histone H1
Chromosomes
Replication
Chromatin Structure
Euchromatin
Heterochromatin
Chromatin Structure
Activation and control of the genome
"Open"
"Closed"
Mystery
Most recognized way of epigenetic modification
Transcriptional silencing
5' position of the Cytosine ring within Cpg dinucleotides
Uses
Cancer Studies (inappropriate methylation)
Risk Assessment
Early Diagnosis
Disease Treatment
Aging
Hormone Environment
Variations in behavior
Sexual dimorphism
Disease risk
Strokes
Sexual dimorphism in DNA methylation
ERα by DNA methylation in the cortex of males and females
Ischemic injury
Prevention of Brain Damage
Epigenetic Regulation of Peptide Hormones
GH--Growth
FSH--Differentiation
Insulin--Metabolism
Hypothalamus
Pituitary
Gastrointestinal Tract
Non endocrine Tissues
Encoded by one or two genes
Cascade--Second Messengers- CAMP
http://jme.endocrinology-journals.org/content/46/1/R11/T3.expansion.html

Oxytocin
Neurotransmitter
Hypermethylation
Autism
Vasopressin
mRNA expression
Alcohol dependance
‘social neuropeptides’
Study
John Hopkins
Corticosterone
Fkbp5
Fewer methyl groups
Long lasting change
Prepare for future
“If you think of the stress system as preparing you for fight or flight, you might imagine that these epigenetic changes might prepare you to fight harder or flee faster the next time you encounter something stressful.”
Application
Stress-related disorders
Reelin gene--Schizophrenia
Alzheimer's disease--altered methylation patterns
DNA methylation microarrays
PTSD
Therapy--Cancer, Alzheimers, Fragile X Syndrome
Concluding Remarks
Chronic stress is no joke!
Information
Champagne, Frances A., and Emilie F. Rissman. "Behavioral Epigenetics: A New Frontier in the Study of
Hormones and Behavior." Hormones and Behavior 59.3 (2011): 277-78. 2011. Web. 3 June 2015.
"Chronic Stress May Cause Long-Lasting Epigenetic Changes." Johns Hopkins Medicine. 10 Sept. 2010.
Web. 3 June 2015.
Crews, David. "Epigenetics, Brain, Behavior, and the Environment." Hormones.gr. 18 Dec. 2009. Web. 03
June 2015.
"Epigenetic Modifications Regulate Gene Expression." Epigenetic Modifications Regulate Gene
Expression. Web. 03 June 2015.
Fowden, Abigail L., and Alison J. Forhead. "Hormones as Epigenetic Signals in Developmental
Programming." Wiley Online Library. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 15 Apr. 2009. Web. 03 June 2015.
Stankiewicz, Adrian M., Artur H. Swiergiel, and Pawel Lisowski. "Epigenetics of Stress Adaptations in
the Brain." ScienceDirect. Sept. 2013. Web. 03 June 2015.
Zhang, Xiang, and Shuk-Mei Ho. "Epigenetics Meets Endocrinology." Journal of Endocrinology. Society
for Endocrinology, 24 Nov. 2010. Web. 3 June 2015.
Images
"Brain Power." Flickr. Yahoo! Web. 03 June 2015.
"CGS : What Neuro-revolution? The Public Find Brain Science Irrelevant and Anxiety-Provoking." CGS :
What Neuro-revolution? The Public Find Brain Science Irrelevant and Anxiety-Provoking. Web. 03 June 2015.
"DNA." Mashable. Web. 03 June 2015.
"DNA Methylation and Hydroxymethylation." DNA Methylation and Hydroxymethylation. Web. 03 June
2015.
"Epigenetics and Chromatin Structure." Epigenetics and Chromatin Structure. Web. 03 June 2015.
"Findings from Quantitative Analysis of Chromatin Structure Challenge Classical Model of Static
Regularity." Findings from Quantitative Analysis of Chromatin Structure Challenge Classical Model of Static Regularity. Web. 03 June 2015.
"Jody's Fitness - BLOG - Stressed Out? Try a Little Exercise..." Jody's Fitness - BLOG - Stressed Out? Try a
Little Exercise...Web. 03 June 2015.
"Nature vs. Nurture series." My Bin of Thoughts. 15 July 2010. Web. 03 June 2015.
"Research - Nathaniel Martin's Research Page." Nathaniel Martins Research Page. Web. 03 June 2015.
"Why Too Much Stress Leads To Too Little - The Body Consultants." The Body Consultants. 02 June 2014.
Web. 03 June 2015.
William, Aarron Jacob. "What Is Epigenetics?" Vimeo. 2014. Web. 03 June 2015.
https://www.surveymonkey.com/analyze/OzrJGPL9mhRDYPmJw8_2BeoZ8r9A5ySRfhYa8fA1in9rs_3D

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