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Summation Project: King, Blagg, Stoddard

Reformation through Today...
by

Nicholas Detweiler-Stoddard

on 29 April 2010

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Transcript of Summation Project: King, Blagg, Stoddard

The Reformation and Beyond... 1500...........................1550............................1600............................1650............................1700..............................1750.................................1800...............................1850..................................1900..................................1950...............................2000............... Zwingli and the Swiss Reformation The Radical Reformation The European Scene Calvin Luthern Orthodoxy and Protestant Scholasticism Currents in Intellectual Life: The Enlightenment, Rationalism, and the Scientific Revolution The Modern World: Social, Political, and Economic Change The Modern World: Intellectual Change Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531)
Zurich, Switzerland Zwingli had a strong humanist leaning and decided to preach through the New Testament out of the original Greek than use the Catholic Church lectionary. His first act of defiance was his presence at a meal in which parishoners ate sausages on Ash Wednesday. The Catholic Church forbade the eating of meat during Lent. The bishop called multiple disputations to debate what Zwingli was teaching. When no one could
dispute Zwingli's understanding of scripture, he was allowed to keep preaching in Zurich. Zwingli intended for his reforms to permeate all of Switzerland. He was so adamant about this that when met with resistance, he used economic sanctions against territories that remained loyal to the Catholic church. Eventually Catholic cantons sent forces to Zurich and Zwingli died in battle attempting to preserve his reforms. In the end, Protestant churches were allowed to remain in Switzerland as long as they did not interfere with local Catholics. Zwinglian Worship
The Mass is a memorial, not a sacrifice.
Bread and Wine are reminders of grace, not vessels.
Faith and belief are focused on the spiritual, not the physical.
Music is a secular practice and had no place in the church.
A solemn sermon was at the center of the worship service. The term "Anabaptist" was used to refer to any number of different groups whose common cause for separation from the Catholic church was infant baptism. Anabaptists re-baptized their adults upon confession of faith. Different movements of Anabaptists could be found all
over Europe... Conrad Grebel, Felix Manz: Zurich Balthasar Hubmaier: Waldshut, Austria & Moravia Melchior Hoffman: Strasborg Jakob Hutter: Moravia Jan Matthys and John of Leiden: Munster Menno Simons: Netherlands Many Anabaptists were persecuted by the Catholic church for their heretical beliefs and by Protestants for their refusal to fight on behalf of their nations. The Holy Roman Empire assembly of 1555 decided that Catholicism and Lutheranism could coexist. The late 16th and 17th century saw the nation-states gathering strength and resources as
colonization increased. http://www.reisenett.no/map_collection/historical/shepherd/Colonization_1600-1700.jpg A significant development in the 17th century was the growth of royal absolutism. This system of government consolidated more national power around the monarch, weakening the political influence of the church. The Seven Pillars of Royal Absolutism
Conscription (Mandatory Military Service)
Centralized Finance Office (Taxes)
Finance Ministry (Economy)
Professional Diplomatic Service
Professional Bureaucratic Service
National Education System
Propoganda Anabaptist Worship "Radical" having two conotations from the Latin term "radix" meaning "root":
1. Recovering the root traditions of the early church in the Gospels and Acts.
2. Getting to the root of the corruption of the church. The scripture is at the center of worship, informing methods and practices.
Only adult believers are to be baptized because it is the biblical prescedent for those who believe to be baptized.
Music was integral as Anabaptists developed their own hymnody.
The community was crucial for maintaining accountbility and discernment.
Worship spaces were very simple, void of typical Catholic imagery.
Christ is present in the Eucharist spiritually, yet there is something tangible about the gathered body coming to the table. The Anabaptists were known for the fervor with which they followed the Gospel. A few tried to violently bring about the kingdom of God, but most followed the pacifist route of faithfully following Jesus commandments to "Love the Lord your God...and love your neighbor as yourself." Matt. 22:37-40 John Calvin 1509-64
Born in France, spent most
of career in Geneva, Switzerland Calvin was considered on of the great Protestant theologians. He set out to establish a systematic theology for the Protestant Reformation. Because the writings of Luther and others were argumentative in nature, Calvin wanted to establish a Protestant theology that stood alone, not simply defined by what it was not. Calvin's main theological work "Institutes of the Christian Religion" is still considered highly influential. The final edition (1559) covers 1500 pages an many modern printings. While Calvin was reluctant to do much more than write theology from his home, he was begged to come to Geneva and help bolster the reforms in that city. He spent the rest of his career finishing his writings while preaching, disputing competing theologies, and establishing congregational and civic norms for the Swiss City. Calvin's Theology Calvin read through the bible and saw the overarching story of God attempting to reconcile a fallen humanity to God's self. Calvin saw the act of reconciliation coming through the death of Jesus, another act of God. For Calvin, God was the one in control of all things. Humans are not capable of saving themselves. Humans can only respond with gratitude and servituude for the salvation that has been enacted by God. Even so, the acknowledgment and subsequent response is entirely empowered by the Holy Spirit. The controversial doctrine of predestination arose from Calvin's concern for God's sovereignty. This continues to be a hot topic among many in the Christian faith. Calvin and Worship Services were highly intellectual, focused on the sermon as the center of the service.
Singing of the Psalms was encouraged.
Calvin recognized the need for the physical to help humans focus on the spiritual, hence his insistence on weekly Eucharist to strengthen the community.
Eucharist was only for the elect; it needed to be kept holy as the place for the people of God to be in the presence of Jesus spiritually.
Baptism of infants was supported as it followed the Old Testament practice of circumcision as a symbol of the promise of God to the people and their children. Churches following the Reformed tradition of Calvin: Presbyterian
Reformed
Congregationalist
Reformed Baptist After Luther's death, the Lutheran tradition witnessed some turmoil as the person who took the reigns caused some controversy by his beliefs. Some believed that he had strayed too far from what Luther originally intended. This period of time after Luther's death was characterized by increased focus on formulating a disticntly Lutheran systematic theology. Just as Calvin had done a few years earlier, Lutheran theologians were intent on formulating a distinct systematic theology that was not based simply on its opposition to the Catholic church. Luther's Seal Galileo Galilei
1564-1642 The Enlightenment was a shift in understanding that affected science, culture, and religion. The main emphasis being that humans had the capability to explain their world entirely through rational thought based on scientific discovery. Historians approximate the timeframe of the Enlightenment to be around the beginning of the 17th century through the end of the 18th. Leading Enlightenment Thinkers Used scientific methods to prove some heretical teachings like the earth revolving around the sun. Rene Descartes
1596-1650 Rational philosopher who reasoned the existence of God, but maintained the disconnect between God and humans. John Locke
1632-1704 Left room for religious thought, but described it as copletely separate from the quest for true knowledge through science. http://www.klitzfamily.com/files/30_years_war_in_germany.jpg Enlightenment thought was born out of a disillusionment with religion because of the 30 Years' War. Many noticed that differences in religious belief lead to some of the bloodiest fighting in history. Science provided the opportunity for humans to identify common truths that all could agree on, instead of fighting over. While the world had previously been understood as containing both material and mystical elements, Enlightenment thought stressed that it was only the material elements that really mattered. Quickly the physical and spiritual was torn apart. Christianity was threatened with being rendered obsolete as it held onto "oudated" understandings of the interaction between God and humanity. Immanuel Kant
1724-1804 Argued that religion should be based on our innate sense of morality, again keeping separate the mind from the spirit. The Christian Response to the Enlightenment Liberal Conservative Okay with different spheres of knowing
Religion starts from within each individual Truth still comes from the revelation of scripture
Human understanding is marred by the fall of humanity, so we depend on God for truth The 18th century ended with two highly influential and violent wars: The American Revolution and The French Revolution. Both were influenced by the rationalism and humanism coming out of the Enlightenment. A primary response to this bloodshed and the dehumanization that came from industrialization was Romanticism. All over Europe and into the Americas, artists portrayed an ideal for humanity that was not corrupted by the modern trends of urbanization and production. The belief in the goodness of humanity permeated after the Revolutions. Moves were made in many countries to uphold human rights and limit the powers of the church and the state. The "progress" of rational thought and industrialization came at a cost as poverty and violence was pervasive throughout the cities to which the poor flocked to find work in the new consumer economy. War was a reality again in the early 20th century as both World Wars led to an almost constant state of fear and suspicion in much of the western world. The Natural Sciences The Social Sciences Philosophy History and Biblical Criticism Breakthroughs in physics showed that the world is less ordered and predictable as was once understood. There are no absolutes, observations are relative to the observer and the context of the subject. So then, is God relative? Charles Darwin (1809-82) showed that nature changed over time, attacking the belief that everything is as God originally made it. This also undercut the belief in a literal 6-day creation story. http://www.anthroblogs.org/nomadicthoughts/archives/addis-darwin-bday-cartoon.jpg Medical advances and the discovery of germs challenged the long held belief that diseases were acts of God. http://funtavern.com/pictures/gp-germs.jpg Sociology became a legitimate field of study as scientists wanted to explain human behavior throughout history and predict future trends. Leading sociologists determined that Darwin's evolutionary ideas held true to humanity in that "survival of the fittest" should lead humans to continually improving themselves through the generations. Some believed that Christian beliefs in loving neighbor and caring for the poor counteracted this ideal goal of improvement. Other sociologists explained religion simply as a social construct that helps to maintain order. Psychology grew in its influence as scientists found human behavior to be related more to environment than rational thought. http://www.unpopularideas.com/storage/Evolution.jpg Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) had significant impact on the social sciences. His explanation of religion was based on the idea that humans' thoughts are driven by suppressed emotions, so our concept of God simply arises from our desire for a supreme "father" figure that provides us with security in an increasingly unsafe world. Some thinkers, like Hegel (1770-1831) argued that God is part of all creation. He was not opposed to Christianity as such, but he felt that philosophy's goals of explaning the world was the best way for humans to understand God. Other philosophers were much more fervent in their dismissal of the existence of God. God was simply a human construct according to many. Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) argued that the teachings of religion never made as much progress as the willpower of humans to improve their status and power. Karl Marx (1818-83) was adamant about humanity abandoning the conception of God so that they could focus on the material realities of the world. He believed a perfect egalitarian society could be achieved if humans were willing to work for the common good of society. History also became a revered subject of study as more and more historians attempted to carefully and objectively analyze and explain the past. This concern led many to look back at the Christian scriptures with a critical eye. New hypotheses were made concerning the actual authors of particular books that changed the way biblical studies were done. There was a large movement in this field to uncover the "historical Jesus" that was removed from traditional church doctrine. The historical criticism of the New Testament led some to dismiss much of the canon as being unreliable. Others, like Adolf von Harnack (1851-1930) was inspired to delve more deeply into the teachings of Jesus, believing that the dominant Christian churches had forgotten this focus. Martin Luther Catholic priest who sought reform by:
urging the use of scripture in vernacular
questioning the scriptural basis of some sacraments
relying on salvation by grace
initial complaint was against the selling of indulgances Vital Information
born 1483
Master of Arts 1505
Began Law Degree
Joined Monastary 1506
Ordained 1507
Professor 1508
Doctorate 1512
Chair of Biblical Studies Wittenburg 1512
95 Theses 1517
The Babylonian Captivity... 1520
Diet of Worms & Excommunication 1521
"Kidnapped" by Fredrick 1521
Translated New Testament into German 1522
Married 1523
German Liturgy 1526
Large Catechism 1529
Augsburg Confession 1530
Died 1546 Theology
sola gratia (only grace)
sola fide (only faith)
sola scriptura (only scripture)
Taught against any form of grace
attained through works
human condition is steeped in sin and death
viewed church as priesthood of all believers Why the Reformation Succeedded?
Addressed theological issues that were relevant to the greater populace,such as pennance and confession
Economic conditions at times put monastic communities in direct competition with peasant farmers
Abuses of wealth and power by some clergy and monks
Devotion to the church and piety in general allowed for Luther's ideas to have impact on the community at large (people listened when scholars talked)
Ability to disseminate writing quickly and to a large number of people
The Spread of Protestantism The Early Progress of the Lutheran Movement
Charles V was unable to repress Luther/Protestant movement in part due to the strong German princes
Political struggles between Francis I, Henry VIII and Charles V at times left Catholic church in a position to be unresponsive to the Lutheran uprising, all three monarchs used the reformation against each other in various ways, even if their personal views were staunchly Catholic
To confuse matters even more the Pope at times also worked against Charles V and his anti-Lutheran policies because he was afraid of the power he might weild
Augsburg Confession in 1530 set the path for eventual legal status for Protestant churches in Germany
Peace of Augsburg was signed in 1555, allowing Lutheran churches only the right to exist at the discretion of the regional ruler, "one ruler, one religion" The Urban Reformation
late medieval city grew dramatically, divide between urban and suburban was at times violent and repressive
at Reformation grew, the gulf between the two began to weaken due to Luther's views on equality in Christ
Reformation happened city by city, and brought with it significant changes in religious practice and also economic assistance
less feast days helped productivity, no taxes to Rome helped keep monetary sources at home, education improved with focus on humanist and classical teaching
The Peasant Revolts of 1525
revolts were not uncommon in the late Middle Ages
failed harvests in 1524 & 1525 attributed to the desperation of the peasants
peasants were armed with Lutheran theology dealing with justice and equality
sought to end restrictive access to land and rivers, heavy taxation, and high rent
Luther was opposed to the oppression of the peasants but also urged them not to revolt, eventually sided with the princes
Luther was not always aware of how his theology would play out in the "real" world Lutheran Worship
Scripture focused worship through reading and preaching at center
Increased lay participation through vernacular Bible and preaching
Introduced congregational hymns
Eucharistic participation encouraged more frequently
Laity allowed to hold and have both bread & cup
Focus on hearing the Word, not seeing the symbols
Eucharistic liturgy “truncated”
Liturgy pedagogical/didactic (less poetic narrative than RC’s) Overview
Spain and Italy remained very Catholic, strong ties with papcy and dislike of Luther attributed
France had a strong Catholic monarchy but a Protestant middle class, Huguenots, gained influence through the 16th century, 1593 King Henry IV, Huguenot was coronated but had to convert to Catholicism to avoid further conflict
Issued Edict of Nantes in 1598 allowing religious toleration for protestants
Netherlands was ruled but Charles V and he repressed the growing reform movements violently
Phillip II ascended the throne in 1555 but had trouble retaining control of the land and by 1607 portions of the Netherlands had achieved independence
Synod of Dort arose from Dutch theological differences stemming from Jacob Arminius and his debate about predestination English Reformation
began with Henry VIII and his desire to have his marriage annulled, but do not discount the desire for church reform beyond the scope of the "King's Great Matter"
several influential advisors during this time were reform minded, most noted Thomas Cranmer and Thomas Cromwell, both worked through the monarchy to exact reform
Henry was very Catholic he just had no desire for papal influence, through legislative means he was declared "Supreme Head of the English Church and Clergy"
Initial changes in worship practice was minimal under Henry
During the reign of Edward VI, Cranmer created the Book of Common Prayer (1549) as the official liturgy of the English Church
Mary took the throne in 1553 and worked on restoring Catholicisim, Cranmer was burned as a heretic in 1556
Elizabeth ascended the English throne in 1558 and sought a unified church, doing so she reissued a revised Book of Common Prayer (1559)
The Thirty-Nine Articles of 1563 became the statement of faith for the Anglican church and were based greatly upon the work of Thomas Cranmer
Elizabeth's policy of via media, or middle way characterized her approach to the church
Scottish Reformation
lack of middle class hampered the initial reform movements
John Knox was an early reformer in Scotland and after imprisonment he fled to Europe to study reformation theology
Knox was asked to return to Scotland in 1558 to help strenghten ties with protestant England but his lambasting of female rulers did not sit well with Elizabeth
Reformed Church of Scotland was formed in 1560 and was a precursor to the modern Presbyterian church
Mary Stuart was catholic Queen of Scotland and her abdication of the throne in 1587 marked the end of catholic rule in Scotland
Puritans
party that desired additional reform not taken by Elizabeth
desired less "popery" and a more congregational authority
held society to a higher standard of less excess in lifestyle and drinking
James I became king at Elizabeth's death and was a puritan but his dealings in Scotland and the democratic notions of the Calvinist there led him back towards views held by Henry VIII
James repressed puritan thought and preachers, many fled to Holland and returned to found a baptist church in 1612

Anglican Worship
Common worship over doctrinal consensus
One common text; Book of Common Prayer
Single worship book (compared to RC proliferation of missals, prayer books, lectionary, etc)
Act of Uniformity disallowed local variations of CBP
Text in hands of worshippers for first time
Vernacular (English) Bible written and used
Retained priestly vestments, ornamented worship setting, signs of the cross, kneeling and confirmation (and kept some saint’s days)
Full communion to be taken at least 3X/year
Reduced office to two services, made accessible to laity
Metrical Psalms sung by congregation as core of music (few hymns, “lack of English poets”)

Oliver Cromwell
ongoing strife between Charles I and Parliment came to a head with the invasion of Scotland
1633 William Laud was appointed Archbishop of Canterbury and began to enforce the Anglican liturgy and in the process persecuted puritans
1649 Laud and Charles were executed and Oliver Cromwell exerted control over England, also conquering Ireland and Scotland
Allowed religious toleration of all but Catholics
Cromwell died in 1658, Charles II and James II ruled poorly until 1688 when parliment invited the Dutch monarchs William and Mary to come rule England.
Act of Toleration issued in 1689 that brought the church back to the middle Europe, Early 16th C. Capitalism
broke down the established social hierarchy
civil authorities relied less on the church for financial stability
Nationalism
Kings in France tightened their grip on the country, subverting church control
England expanded power, taking some from the church Catholic Church
provided unity for Europe
filled a void that was present due
to a lack of a strong central govt Defining Events
Jan Hus martydom
John Wycliffe's Bible
Invention of Printing Press
Discovery of the New World Powerful Rulers
Ferdinand & Isabella
Louis XI & Francis I
Henry VII
Henry VIII
Charles V Ferdinand & Isabella
unified Spain under one rule, 1492
expelled Muslims from Spain, 1492
sponsored Columbus exploration of the
New World, 1492
strong Catholic rulers
parents of Catherine of Aragon
grandparents of Charles V
Louis XI & Francis I
both centralized french political power
Louis XI know as "Universal Spider"
due to his political savy and conspiracies
Francis I was a rival of Henry VIII & Charles V
Used the Reformation to weaken enemies but eventually rejected the Reformation
Moved away from a strong papal influence Henry VII
First Tudor Monarch, final victor of Battle of the Roses
Centralized power in the monarchy through taxation of the feudal lords and other various legal actions
Sought diplomatic ties with Spain, heir apparant Arthur married Catherine of Aragon

Henry VIII
Married six times in search for a male heir
Peer of Charles V and Francis I, ally and enemy of both
during his reign
Divorce from Catherine of Aragon resulted in split
with Catholic Church
Split was political in nature, not theological
Named himself head of Church of England, but held to
most Catholic practices Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
also known as Charles I, Spanish King
ruled over parts of modern day
Germany, Netherlands, France, Italy, Spain
and parts of the New World
Convened the Council of Trent
Violently opposed the Reformation
Catholic Reformation Reforming voices
Council of Trent

Luther hardly first person seeking reform of Roman Catholic Church


Long Running Reform Some reforming voices from within:

Savanarola, OP (d. 1498) and enraged crowds burned "vanities," used indimitation tactics to enforce moral reform. Papal interdict against him; was tortured, hanged, burned and dumped in river [sought reform through direct confrontation]

Cardinal Ximenes (d. 1517) sought to improve spiritual discipline and education of clergy, spent decade imprisoned for denouncing corruption in the Church [sought reform through powers of his office]



All previous councils dealt with one or two issues, Trent faced a host of Protestant charges and Catholic needs

Thoroughly rejected Protestant doctrinal reforms; refused to "lose face" lest they validate Reformation critiques; militant against Reformers

KEY: Catholic Reformation intiated at Trent reformed practice, not doctrine (although they did streamline important distinguishing doctrine)

Cleaning House: The Council of Trent (1545-63) New Worship Elements after Trent:

•Papal authority determined reliability of worship elements
•Single, uniform mass & office used in all Latin churches (centralized papal control)
•Sought to cleanse medieval accretions, return to "clean unadulterated forms," yet still complex liturgy w/ many books
•Narrative, poetic liturgy (less didactic than Protestant’s)
•Magnificent music and visual expression (less rational & intellectual than Protestantism)Restated importance of Latin, not vernacular, worship
•Adoration of Eucharist host, awe of sacrament
•Mass as propitiatory sacrifice of living & dead
•Laity not allowed to hold cup or drink the Eucharist wine
•Mass was activity solely for clergy, no lay involvement
•Laity passively observed and listened to mass in adoration
•Elaborate architecture set stage for mass “drama”
•Private confession before taking host
•Private masses allowed
wpcontent.answers.com/wikipedia/commons/6/66/Pope_Paul_IV.jpg www.italianvisits.com/images/eromagna-im/ferrara/ferrara_savonarola.jpg
Order of Divine Love (1497) involved laity and clergy seeking greater charity and broad spiritual discipline; [sought reform through personal and community improvement]
Capuchins (1528) sought reform through personal discipline and simplicity, care for poor, preaching scripture
Jesuits/Society of Jesus (1540) took vows of poverty, chastity, obedience; [sought reform through education, public preaching, international mission]

Pope Adrian VI (d. 1523) determined to carry out change, but died before he could; same was true of Clement VII and two more popes until Paul IV (d. 1549) actually carried through


www.gutenberg.org/files/11954/11954-h/images/014.jpg
addressed financial corruption
declared responsibility of priests to pay attention to his parish
formed strict indulgence guidelines; still affirmed their use
prohibited marriage to Protestants
endorsed Aquinas' theology (disliked by Protestants)
affirmed Tradition was in line with scripture
founded seminaries to train priests by uniform standards (improved their education but also widened gap with laity)
banned and sought to destroy Protestant & Humanist writings, vernacular Bibles (ban kept until 1966)

Eastern Orthodoxy
Other 16th Century Orthodox Devlopments:

-Ivan the Terrible's success made Mosow's Patriarch the most important
-Orthodoxy at odds with post-Trent, militant Catholic Jesuits in Ukraine and Poland who demanded allegience to the pope
-Orthodoxy on genial terms with Protestants Dilemmas of Wealth & Charity While Western Europe in Reformation-Counter Reformation uproar, East fairly static, docile lest they upset the tolerant Turks

The one major controversy was over vast land wealth of Russian Orthodox monasteries:
Monasteries owned 30% of land
They contributed substantial assistance to the poor BUT funds came from produce of the land which competed directly with the same poor
"non-Possessors" saw injustice and called for monks to retreat from world, not be engaged in economic activity
"Possessors" said monks must keep land and continue caring for the poor; this side won
The Scene in Europe: Politics, Religion, and Strife The 30 Years War Time of overlapping allegiences:
town
parish
local aristocracy and monarchs
national borders

Roman Catholic Church was the first Global Institution, commanded overarching allegience--that is, until the Reformation splintered its control 16th cent. Protestants gained signficant territory before uneasy Peace of Augsburg brokered
Protestant refugees from Catholic territories flooded decreasing Protestant lands
17th cent. Protestants lost substantial portions of their winnings to resurgent Catholicism
The Peace of Westphalia was signed in 1648 to end the bloody 30 Years War as it was apparent neither side had the resources to fully defeat the other
Eurpeans had again failed to settle their religious disputes without bloodshed

Each ruler agreed that they could choose the religion of the lands under their control:
"cuius regio, eius religio"
(loosely =)"Whose realm, his religion" France and the Huguenots 17th cent. Catholic France under various King Louis tenously allowed Protestant Huguenots to remain
The king's suspicions about the Huguenost were confirmed when they joined a revolt against him
King Louis XIV responded in 1684 by compelling them with armed forces to
1685 he made it illegal to be Protestant in France and thousands fled
In 1702, remaining Huguenots guerillas attacked French armies who then burned villages killing thousands
By 1709, brutal repression stamped out last insurgent only to have movement remmerge in 1715, this time setting up a secret French Reform Church
French Reform eventually established a seminary and trained many pastors
By 1787, French and other Europeans were tired of religious violence so Louis XVI decreed religious tolerance Prussia, Russia, and the Empire Eastern and Western countries struggled to build strong, efficient governments
Netherlands alone had a workable legislature rather than a single monarch
Prussia was perpetually worn down from fending off Turks and saw need to reform peasant conditions, financy and policymaking and did so with a strong central government
Russia opened trade with Western Europe and was made into a world power by Catherine the Great (d. 1792)
The Formula of Concord (1577) was a work that eased some of the tensions of the sects within the Lutheran tradition, finding a sort of middle ground theologically. Catholic Orthodoxy Popes & Kings
Divergence within -Pope's power waning
-Secular authority on the rise Heavyweights: Pope vs. King
Council of Trent had strengthened papacy
State monarchs were interested in establishing national churches independent of papacy; glad to see French clergy gain some autonomy
Rulers approved of Febronius' argument that Church's authority lay in faith community and with their elected bishops, not with the pope
Many also believed Trent too narrow in dismissal of Reformation ideas

In late 1700's, Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II threatened by church's 40% land ownership, took control of some monasteries & clergy's education in Vienna
By end of century he declared papal bulls inauthoritative, banned clergy contact with Rome, and allowed freedom of religion for all


Trent had affirmed Aquinas over Augustine because Thomas seemed less Calvinist

16th cent. conservative theologians accused others of being "closet Calvinists" or for simply thinking too much like Protestants

Tensions became so great, French King Louis XIV closed one of the dissenting schools so as to hold French Catholicism together

The pope also condemned mysticism because it provided direct contact with God, and thus, a loop-hole for the invidual to be free of authority to the Church or the papacy Internal Catholic Dissension The Orthodox Church in an Embattled Era The Orthodox church's largest contingent was in Russia, where the church was a key component of Russian culture. The Orthodox church endured during periods of political tension and civil war at the beginning of the 17th century. The church was at the center of cultural renewal in the middle of the 17th century. Reforms Leaders within the church made some changes in practice that addressed mistakes in the translation from Greek to Russian. Later, the head of the church Nikon (1605-81) attempted extreme reforms to make the church look more like the Greek model. He also desired for the church to be independent of the state and be the supreme power in Russia. A council of patriarchs decided that Nikon's reforms would remain, but he was comdemned personally for his ruthless tactics. A timeline of Christian history by
Adam Blagg
Derek King
Nicholas Stoddard Chapter headings adapted from Nystrom, Bradley P. and David P., ed. The History of Christianity: An Introduction. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2004. The RCC in the Modern World Napolean
19th Century
Early 20th Century
Catholic Theology Eastern Orthodox
in the Modern World Autocephalous Churches
Russian Orthodox Theology Biblical Criticism
Biblical Theology
Theologies of Hope
Liberation Theologies
Secular Theology
Currents Fundamentalism
Evangelicalism
Pentacostalism
Ecumenical Movement
The RCC after Vatican II

The Expansion of Christianity Fundamentalism:
North American reaction against harmful effects of Modernism & Liberalism
Named after 12 pamphlets, "The Fundamentals"
(1910-1915)
Distinct Tenets:
God verbally inspired scripture
Plenary inspiration (all parts equal)
Innerancy of Bible (it is w/out error)
Infallibility of Bible (it cannot mislead)
Read virgin birth and resurrection literally
Embraced substitutionary atonement model
Millenialism (literal 1000 yr reign of Christ)
Dispensationalism





7 dispensations directed by God
currently between Jesus and Rapture
"church age" not original vision of Christ
gospel ethics are for future age, not now
humans fail in every dispensation
nation ofIsrael is central player SOME KEY PLAYERS:

John Nelson Darby, d. 1884 (Dispensationalism)
Cyrus Ingerson Scofield, d.1921 ("Scofield Reference Bible")
Hal Lindsey, b. 1929 - ("The Late, Great Planet Earth")
Billy Grahahm, b. 1918 - (neo-evangelical evangelist)
Jerry Falwell, d. 2007 (Baptist televangelist)
Josh McDowell, b. 1939 - (apologist, "Evidence that Demands a Verdict") North American Evangelicalism: Spiritual Rebirth SOME KEY INSTITUTIONS & PEOPLE:

Christianity Today
Fuller Theological Seminary
Wheaton College
National Association of Evangelicals
non-denominational churches

Rick Warren, b. 1954 - (Saddleback; "Purpose Driven Life")
James Dobson, b. 1936 - (Focus on the Family)
Pat Robertson, b. 1930 - (700 Club; Christian Coalition)
Robert E. Webber, d. 2007 (worship & early church scholar)
John Stott, b. 1921 - (Anglican-evangelical leader; author)

Descriptive of individuals or denominations who:

hold traditional doctrine
(without self-identifying as fundamentalist)
insistence on centrality of inspired Bible
emphasize personal conversion
stress personal piety
focus on evangelism and world mission
sin is largely personal separation from God;
overcome by personal transformation


Influenced by Fundamentalist theology but:
uncomfortable with its rigidity, divisiveness
views on eschatology, science, and culture are similar but less strong
are actually willing to engage ecumenically (even with Catholics)
have sought to establish intellectual credibility in the mainstream
After 1925 Scopes trial,
largely discredited as
socially backward, maladjusted,
anti-progressive, anti-elite,
rural and southern


Mistrust of broader society, including colleges, spawned Bible institutes (e.g. Moody)
Movement fractured, especially over Eschatology
The most militant refused to cooperate with non-fundamentalists

Continues as a prominent force in recent decades:
Moral Majority & Christian Coalition politics
"Left Behind" novels
large Southern Baptist numbers sitemason.com/files/f1af3W/scopes1.JPG humantrafficking.change.org/blog/view/world_evangelical_alliance_tackles_trafficking www.omsinternational.org/files/countries/philippines/philippinesChurchService.jpg KEY GROUPS:

Pentacostalism largely born out of Wesleyan Holiness' & African-American Christianity's emphasis on experience of the Spirit (2nd work of Grace)

Assemblies of God (13 million members)
Church of the Foursquare Gospel
Church of God in Christ
Church of God, Cleveland TN
Lee University
Pentacostalism:
Experiencing the Spirit of God
Charles Parham (1873-1922) began asking, "What is effect of Holy Spirit?"
and became convinced that tongues (glossolalia) evidence of the Spirit

New Years Day, 1901 - marked as first occurence of speaking in tongues
Azusa Street Revival, 1906 - "fire came down," William Seymour and large number baptized in the Spirit; considered birth of Pentacostalism

racially integrated at the start
attracted marginalized population
anti-clerical (used lay and trained leaders)
early movement suspicious of higher ed
gender equality in leadership
pacifist until WWI (some until WWII, Vietnam)

By mid-20th century demographics and movement shifted:
New phase called "Charismatic" (charismata = gifts of the Holy Spirit)
Pentacostalism had formed its own denominations but new Charismatic movement took place within existing institutions
Adherrants now included socially respectable, highly educated, affluent

Pentacostals are evangelical in emphasis on personal transformation,
their views of scripture and God are often Fundamentalistic

"Disgraceful intermingling of the races, they cry and make howling
noises all day and into the night. They run, jump, shake all over, shout
to the top of their voice, spin around in circles, fall out on the sawdust
blanketed floor jerking, kicking and rolling all over it. Some of them
pass out and do not move for hours as though they were dead. These
people appear to be mad, mentally deranged or under a spell. They
claim to be filled with the spirit. They have a one eyed, illiterate, Negro
as their preacher who stays on his knees much of the time with his
head hidden between the wooden milk crates. He doesn't talk very
much but at times he can be heard shouting Repent," and he's
supposed to be running the thing... They repeatedly sing the same
song , 'The Comforter Has Come.'"

A Los Angeles newspaper (September 1906) kelbymilgrim.org/Azusa.html
A few vital pentacostal/charismatic concepts:

Akolalia = someone's ordinary speech heard as a different language
Glossolalia = speaking in another language

Charismatic Gifts (1 Cor. 12) include :

Tongues
Interpretation of Tongues
Healing
Prophecy
Discernment of spirits

Foursquare Gospel refers to four fundamental beliefs of Pentecostalism:

1) Jesus saves, John 3:16
2) baptizes with the Holy Spirit, Acts 2:4
3) heals bodily, James 5:15
4) and is coming again to receive those who are saved, Thess 4:16-17

Pentacostals-Charismatics now number over 500 Million! SOME KEY ORGANIZATIONS:

Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity (RCC)
National Council of Churches
World Council of Churches
World Student Christian Federation Ecumenism: Searching for unity in diversity Ut Omnes Unum Sint – That they all may be one (John 17:21)
Widespread disunity after Reformation (including Wars of Religion) troubled Christians for centuries

World Missionary Conference (1910) and missiological dilemmas pushed the need for ecumenism:

indigenous people could not understand the disunity of denominationalism
shared inter-denominational values were seen as crucial for effective witness

At Vatican II, the Catholic Church stated that Christian divisions,
"openly contradict the will of Christ,
scandalize the world and damage the most holy cause,
the preaching of the gospel to every creature."


In the late-20th century,
Protestants rediscovered richness of Catholic spirituality
because of the increased openess
www.fma.ie/images/pope_benedict_ecumenism_2.jpg Vatican II put the Catholic Church in a much more open & welcoming posture
Catholic Church has remained theologically conservative since Vatican II but has played an active role in social and economic justice (esp. w/ Pope John Paul II)
A host of innovations were allowed in worship, leadership, ecumenism, social engagement
Vatican II (1962-65): Opening the Doors
CATHOLIC LITURGICAL RENEWAL (Vatican II)

•Fuller participation by all the faithful gathered
•Worship less tied to fixed formula of words, more freedom
•Liturgy more pastoral, less dogmatic
•Living vernacular came into common use for liturgy and whole mass
•Increased emphasis on Bible readings and preaching’
•Allowed laity to study scripture on own
•Eucharist Altar moved closer to congregation, priest now faces people
•Laity now can handle and have both bread and wine
•Eucharist takes on more celebratory tone
•Eucharist now celebrated by whole congregation, not just priests
•Less elaborate vestments
•Singing of popular hymnody by whole congregation
The primary Orthodox patriarch had been reigning over the Church from within a Muslim state since the fall of Constantinople in 1453

When Turkish Ottoman empire began to crumble by the 1800s, the newly independent states did not want their churches controlled by the same Patriarch who used to carry out Imperial enforcement so they formed self-governing national churches

Today's Orthodox Church is made up of "administratively independent" branches who share the same faith, sacraments and history

The independence of the 19th & 20th centuries brought intellectual and religious freedom to the Orthodox church, encouraging popular devotion and study even as the former spiritual centers--the monastic orders--continue to decline

Orthodoxy's Self-Governing State Churches
In early 18th century, Tsar Peter the Great opened Russia to the West
Tsar Peter also placed church under his control by dissolving patriarchate
Church art, music and theology impacted by Western trends
By 19th century, rising nationalism brings negative reaction against West
Many Orthodox saw themselves as far superior to Protestants, Catholics

His Holiness Patriarch Kirill
of Moscow and All Russia
19th century also brought renewed monastic vitality
The new Russian spirituality influenced writers like Fedor Dostoevsky (d.1881) and Leo Tlostoy (d.1910)
20th century dealt substantial blows to Church under Communism (1917-1991); property confiscate, schools closed, priests severely restricted, some arrested and executed
Twenty years after the fall of USSR, Russian Orthodoxy is reigniting


www.mospat.ru/en/the_patriarch/

ORTHODOX WORSHIP TODAY
-300 million Orthodox Christians worldwide-











•Multi-sensory worship (visual, olfactory, auditory, touch, taste)
•Chanting and singing, no instruments
•Frequent signing of the cross and kneeling or bowing
•Veneration of saintly icons as “windows into heaven”
•Elaborate vestments and processions
•Worship is focused on Eucharist and preparation for receiving it
•Altar hidden behind doors in “holy of holies”, only accessible to priest and servers
The Silver Lining
Even as power shifted to secular civil authorities, Ecclesial authorities freed from feudal loyalties
As prisoner of Napolean, Pope garnered sympathy for the papacy
Bishops lost land, rewards, privileges and were forced increase loyalty to pope for protection
Ultramontanism =
looking to papacy for leadership
By late 1800's, liberalism and secular nationalism stripped even the papacy of everything but the Vatican
Pope Pius IX responded by reinforcing spiritual authority against mordenizing forces of liberalism




German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck sought singular national allegience (1872-8), saw Catholics divided between nation and Rome so cut diplomatic ties with Vatican, expelled RC religious orders (but repealed worst laws when realized he needed Catholic Church's help against socialism)

At his 1804 coronation, Napolean further implied control over church by arranging ceremony like that of Charlegmagne--but crowned himself rather than allowing Pope Pius VII to do so

When Pope refused to approve English war, Napolean annexed Papal Rome for France (not returned until 1815)

Overall Napolean accelerated secularization (religious tolerance, religously nuetral values, state education, marital ceremonies by state)


Vatican I (1869-70)
set Papal infallibility = Pope cannot err

Turn of the 20th century continued to see power struggles between state authorities and the Roman Catholic Church, esp. in France


Pope Pius X continues defense against modernism (1907); required priests to take anti-modernist oaths, banned books, culled leadership ranks
Despite bans, education and theology experienced revival mid-century


World War I - Pope Benedict XV accused for maintaining nuetrality
World War II - Pope Pius XI tried to mend relations in Italy but Mussolini took over schools, put catholic youth into fascist system
German Catholics pressured to join Nazi party, Rome sent Palm Sunday sermons denouncing Nazis and Hitler
Enraged Hitler responded by intimidating clergy
Pius XI legacy of resistance controversial, some think to little done against Nazi atrocities, others think Soviet Communism was an even bigger threat
Church & War Church schools closed
Separation of church & state declared
Churches made public property
Congregations stripped of legal standing Approaching the Second Millenium
The growing push to contextualize orthodox dogmas, consider effect of cultural-historical changes and reappropriate doctrine for a new generation led to the dramatic changes of the Second Vatican Council (1962-65)
Theology Before Vatican II
20th century, despite repression of modernism, brought different ways of thinking for Catholicism
Jacques Maritain (d. 1973) - theology relevant for modern culture
Pierre Teilhard de Chardin (d. 1955) - harmonized theology & science
Karl Rahner (d.1984) - orthodox but said every era must rediscover own doctrine Teilhard de Chardin Rahner Maritain avizora.com/publicaciones/biografias/textos/textos_m/images/maritain_jacques2.jpg http://www.chasque.net/umbrales/rev163/teilhard%20de%20chardin.jpg http://piergiorgiofrassati.no.sapo.pt/imagens/Rahner.gif
As modernity moved in, the Catholic church took on an increasingly defensive position in favor of tradition but continued to loose ground
During the French Revolution, church land was seized
Napolean offered land back (1801), but demanded:

right of state to install own bishops
state's right to reject appointments of clergy made by bishops
payment of clergy from public funds, not ecclesial
prohibited papal decrees w/out state approval


"They're At It Again...And The State Is Winning" brogilbert.org/moreau/1moreau_frenchrev.htm Through new eyes...
Modernists began to see literary qualities of scripture,
scholars employed tools of modern historical,
social and literary theory to study it


Initially asked simple historical questions, "Did these events actually happen? Was this the actual writer? What was the social context?"

Traditional views of scripture and doctrine were threatened by their conclusions

Recent biblical scholars are more interested in the effect the text on the reader

Growing optimism that we can relatively accurately determine original intent of authors

Biblical Theology connects directly to preaching and life of the faith community

Seeking Unity Within Diverse Texts
With the seeming hopelessness of finding anything conclusive in historical-critical study, some have turned to "Biblical Theology" to find common conceptual threads
Intelligible Theology
Secular theologians avoid:
theological jargon
supernatural elements

Secular theologians affirm:
Christian secularization (natural science, democracty, cultural pluralism and tolerance)
reinterpret Christian message in relevant terms
Maintaining its distinct character


Harvey Cox, "The Secular City" (1965)
John A.T. Robinson, "Exploration into God" (1967)
Influenced by Paul Tillich
Since 1960's "secular theologians" have sought put churches story in understandable language for modern, urban, industrial society

1960's Latin American context saw an end to colonialism but no end to economic and political oppression; wealth & power remained in the hands of the few

Religion, rather than confronting inequity, often legitimated its structures or was nuetered through over-spiritualization

Liberation theologians saw gospel salvation as applying to the concrete here and now, not just a future spiritual heaven





Liberation theologians,
like Gustavo Gutierrez sought to:

despiritualize biblical salvation themes
unpack Exodus themes of liberation
see God as primarily with and for the poor, not the rich
see sin as social, political, structural, not just personal
dismantle dependence by conscientizing populace about the unjust structures
did theology from the bottom up--using life experience--rather than theology top down from the academia and institutions of power




This new look at scripture has been somewaht slow to make significant inroads in church life, but one of the biggest outcomes has been the "Historical Jesus" movement:

Albert Schweitzer (d. 1965) one of first searching out the historical Jesus.
After him, scholars like Rudolf Bultman (d. 1976) assumed it pointless to purse "real" Jesus without 1st demythologizing NT.
A third wave of Jesus scholars after '60's returned to original hope that true message of Jesus could be recovered (Marcus Borg, N.T. Wright)

Many left modern critical study seeing Bible as a "hopelessly disparate collection of documents" www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/ni/papyrus.jpg Some late 20th cent. European theologians wished to hold a vision of the kingdom of God that was not simply the liberal idea of a bettered society nor the conservative speculation of exact timing of the end.

Their movement was named after Jurgen Multmann's book
"Theology of Hope" (1964) Ultimate Reason for Eschatological hope:

Bible is about God's promise that God will act in the future (Moltmann, 1964)
In Jesus, God's reign began, is drawing to a conclusion (Moltmann, 1964; Pannenberg, 1964)


Eschatological Hope Liberation from Dependence Black Theologians, like James Cone added:
Liberation requires reconciliation
No one will be fully set free until all are
At cross, God takes on suffering for the victims/oppressed

Feminist Theologians, like Rosemary Radford Ruether noted:
Patriarchy as a key sin
Women's failure to affrim self was more of a sin for them than pride rmadisonj.blogspot.com/2008/03/audacity-of-news.html Central Tenet:
God acts in love, is pure love By the 1800s, Catholic & Protestant Mission Societies were well-established and European Christianity flooded out into the world from its continental enclave, following the colonial powers of the 19th & 20th centuries

Europeans often carried a cultural superiority complex, feeling obligated by "the white man's burden" to convert and civilize the heathen world, though certainly not all approved of colonialism or of their role in "preparing the natives" for colonial subjection

Interestingly, the mission field also proved open to the gifts of women and by 1870 more than half of all Catholic missionaries were women North America
South America
Africa
India
China
Japan Portugese and Spanish first brought Christianity to South America in the early 16th century as they competed for portions of the New World

Portugese took the eastern coast and the Spaniards took the western and northern coasts (on up through Central America and what is now the US Southwest)

As in Central America, the Franciscans, Dominicans and Jesuits did most of the mission work among the indigenous populace


At the end of the US Civil War Protestants from the defeated South along with many missionary society members went into the field in South America. Between 1914 and 1950, Protestant numbers jumped eight-fold to 4 million but still were a significant minority to Catholics
By the early 19th century, liberalizing forces in Europe were influencing the colonies in South America with Simón Bolivar (d. 1830) & José San Martín (d. 1850) leading independence movements,

The new republics were heavily influenced by the secularizing reforms of Napolean which wanted separation of Church from state matters
As in Africa, there were small communities of Christians in Southeast and central Asia from the first centuries of Christianity, though few survived

European traders were traveling to Asia by the 13th century but it was the Portugese in the early 16th and Dutch in the 17th centuries who founded permanent trading colonies Francis Xavier, SJ (d. 1552) - had 30,000+ Japanese converts, raised native clergy, adapted to host customs and left a thriving church that was 100,000 when Protestants showed up in 19th century
Matteo Ricci, SJ (d. 1610) - Christianity to upper class Chinese using radical cultural accomadation
Robert Morrison (d. 1834) - 1st Protestant missionaries in China, translated scripture
William Carrey (d. 1834) - one of first missionaries in India and defied trade companies in doing translation and mission work, inspiring generations of American & Northern European missionaries to join in successful liberating work with the lowest classes
By 20th century independent Indian churches were emerging, Chinese were poised to adapt the faith
Industrial interest in the riches of interior Africa finally sparked missionary explorers like David Livingstone (d. 1873), translator John Phillip (d. 1851) & human rights activist Robert Moffat (d. 1883) who cleared the way for European military and commerce by the end of the 19th century
Even though Africa saw Christianity as early as Europe and Asia, much of it was wiped out by years of Muslim rule other than in parts of Ethiopia and Egypt

Portugese explorers in the late 15th century established Catholic colonies on the Southwestern and Southeastern coasts of Africa

By 1650s Dutch Reform were colonizing South Africa
English Anglicans established a small South African colony in 1814

Despite the coastal colonies, virtually no Europeans ventured into the heart of Africa until the 19th century so it remained untouched by Euro-christian culture


British were the other highly succesful N.American colonizer, also taking Canada in 18th cent. and adding Anglicanism to the French Catholic mix

The British American colonies were inhabitted by nearly every major British religious group. Early tensions were overcome to create a unique level of mutual tolerance, and with formation of an independent country, freedom of religion was institutionalized into law

Waves of immigrants and newly acquired French territory boosted numbers of American Catholics to the largest denomination by the Civil War

Racism and inequality forced the massive converted slave population to form their own denominations by the turn of the 19th century (AME, African-Methodist Episcopal one of the 1st)
By 16th cent. Spanish were colonizing North America & the Caribbean with conquistadors, Franciscans, Dominicans & Jesuits

The Spanish usually considered indiginous persons as infidels with heretical native religions and allowed settlers the right to indigenous labor (usually exploitive slavery) with hope of Christianizing them
French Catholic explorers brought Christianity to Canada by 16th cent.
Freed American slaves were helped by wealthy Anglicans to form a "truly" African Christian nation in Sierre Leone from which potential was seen for Africans to evangelize their own continent

By early 20th century, European missions were all over the continent with Africans seeking to have a greater participation in the formation and leadership of their churches and at end of 20th century continent was divided roughly equally between Muslims, traditional religions, Protestants & Catholics In 18th and 19th centuries Great Britain took India and colonized much of southeast Asia with the French; the Germans entered China

Boxer Rebellion (1900) against Westerners and pro-Western Chinese Christians was crushed by Western armies but destabilized China, 1949 Communist Mao Tse-tung took over and repressed Christianity

Japanese wary of West but US Navy forced trade in 1853 and opened mission; Japanese nationalism of early 20th century pushed for traditional state Shinto and by WWII, Euro-Christians were forced out Religions of the Head,
Religions of the Heart Deism
type of natural religion
worked within the confines of Christianity in a loose form, placed empahsis on reason not revelation
Spiritualism
Jakob Boehme (1575-1625)
thought that theological debate was pointless, desired to explore inner life and had many visions
believed salvation from evil came through union with Christ
George Fox (1624-1661)
revelation was defined in the "inner light" in each person
rejects total depravity
movement embodied in the Quaker tradition and eliminated structured worship
Emmanuel swedenborg (1688-1772)
determined that under the physical world existed a spiritual world that gave life to the physical
desired the church to reform to the visions that had been revealed to him

Quaker Worship
Emphasized movement of the Holy Spirit not “human inventions”
Recognized inner light, divine potential in all worshippers
Silently waited for Spirit with no pre-designated preacher or leader
Egalitarian social behavior and leadership in worship and daily life
Allowed female leadership in worship
Combined worship with concern for justice
True religion seen as inside a person
Eliminated all outward forms, rituals, ministerial roles, even sacraments of baptism & communion Pietism
sought to remain a movement within the context of the established church and crossed denominational lines
True Christiantiy by Johann Arndt (1555- 1621)was the pivotal book in the movement, and stressed the need to be in union with Christ and the resulting transformation that union produced
hoped to the change the heart of the Christian to desire a holy life, not simple attend chruch out of habit
Pia Desideria was the next monumental text to pietism, written by Philipp Jakob Spener (1635-1705), from his work fellowship groups formed that practiced the holy life
Count Ludwig von Zinzendorf (1700-1760) was influenced by and influenced pietist thought
Zinzendorf formed a community at Herrnhut of Anabaptist refugees and the Moravian movement began
The Great Awakening Methodist
John Wesley (1703-1791) Anglican priest who served as a missionary in Georgia, on return trip travelled with Moravians and was moved by their piety
1738 Aldersgate Experience, travelled to Hernnhut and was fond of the movement but did not join the movement
With brother Charles began the Methodist movement with the intention of reviving piety within the Anglican church
Movement took root in colonies and after Reveloution was given indepence from the Anglican Church with the "ordination" of Francis Asbury and Thomas Coke

Methodist Worship
Sought greater individual piety
Developed lay preachers
Doctrinal hymnody
Used field preaching, camp meetings and personal testimony
“Evangelical Sacramentalism” brings people close to God
Used Book of Common Prayer for Holy Communion The Great Awakening
Jonathan Edwards (1703-1758) was the first revivalist preach that is attached to this movement
Preached with great zeal that brought forth life changing expereinces in those who heard the word proclaimed
Influenced all denominations, especially the Baptist and Methodists who were pushing church growth into the frontier
Helped define American indivdualism Protestantism in the Modern World New Churches Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints
founded by Joseph Smith (1805-1844)
Book of Mormon divinely revealed to Smith, traced lost tribes of Isreal to America
Brigham Young lead the young church to Utah after Smith was murdered
polygamy abolished in 1890
many traditional doctrines have been modified
very active in recruiting new members Christian Science
founded by Mary Baker Eddy (1821-1910)
she was miraculous healed in 1866 while reading a New Testament account of Jesus healing
Church founded in 1879
places emphasis on the divine and relegates the material world to a lesser status
No clergy and no preaching, sacraments acknowledged but not outwardly
Seventh-Day Adventists
Adventist movement started by William Miller (1782-1849)
founded by Ellen G White in 1842
first denomination to arise from the millennialism movement
Christ was to return in 1843 (announced in 1835)
Failure to obey the 4th commandment concerning the Sabbath led to worship on Saturday
19th Century Liberal Theology
Friedrich Schleiermacher (1768-1834) was influenced by Romanticism and taught at University of Berlin, believed that religious meaning was more than intellectual, instead a "deeply felt awareness of absolute dependence upon God"
Albrecht Ritschl (1822-1889) also moved from the doctrinal understanding of church towards an ethical approach to religion, disagreed with Schleiermacher that feelings made religion to personal
Ritschl's work lead to the Social Gospel movement in the United States with adherants such as Harry emerson Fosdick and Walter Rauschenbusch
Rauschenbusch focused on saving society and not simply looking at the individual
Critics of Liberal Christianity
Soren Kierkegaard (1813-1855) was a Danish philosopher who decried the ease at which liberal theology conformed to society
He urged a faith that was not easy and relied heavily on God to provide for the individual
Not popular in his time but his workgreatly influenced 20th century existentialism
Several movements in the Anglican, Lutheran and Presbyterian churches against liberal christianity that decried its lack of respect for tradition, also can see the roots for the upcoming fundamentalism movement Revivalism
starts in the second half of the 19th century and focused on a "second awakening"
Some of the great preachers of that era:
Jeremiah Lanphier
Chalres Finney
Dwight L Moody
Billy Sunday
Movement continued into the 20th century with offshoots forming such as the Salvation Army
Was renewed again with advent of radio and television, Charles Fuller, Billy Graham and others 20th Century Theology
neo-orthodoxy rejected the liberal theology of the 19th century and focused on a return the themes of the Reformation
Karl Barth (1886-1968) was a leader in rejecting the notiont that human progress was moving towards a better society and focused on Christ as the only way to God
Focused on the divine aspects of God and was appalled at the German churh during the rule of the Nazi party
Church Dogmatics was his defining work that was left incomplete at his death
Dietrich Bonhoeffer (1906-1945) also moved in the same direction at Barth, his imprisonment in Nazi Germany provided a vivid backdrop to his writing about the dangers of "cheap grace"
Jehovah's Witnesses
or
Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society
millennialist group founded by Charles Taze Russel in 1881
predicted the end of the world in 1914
believe in an election of 144,000
do not believe in the trinity
Trends in World Christianity The most obvious trend in the church today?
Go East (and South) Young Man For nearly two millenia, the Christian Church has been nearly 90% Caucasian

A hundred years ago, 80% of church lived in Europe or North America

Today less than 40% of Christians live in the global North

Leadership is also shifting with more and more leadership in the hands of non-white, non-males

BUT, even as power balances, Westerners must be aware of the inequitable amounts of wealth they hold and the impoverished conditions in which many of our sisters and brothers live
There's life in the Global South!! "Celebration," Keith Mallett www.art.com/products/p10059760-sa-i852514/keith-mallett-celebration.htm 2 Billion Worldwide Christians,
and the South continues to grow!
Full transcript