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Transcript of housing
Immigrant and Refugee Housing Task Group:
helps develop strategies to deal with housing-related issues for refugees and vulnerable immigrants. (Pathak, S. 2012, Pg. 15)
Resettlement Assistance Program: Government assisted refugees receive support up until one year after arrival. (Graham, J. et al., 2012, Pg. 62) General Housing Services Provided to Newcomers:
newcomers may access most general-related services
housing help centers
provision of housing information
telephone help lines for tenants
(Pathak, S. 2012, Pg. 15) Immigrants:
more likely to live in poverty
are more like to depend on social services
36% of immigrants are living in unacceptable housing conditions compared to a statistic of 13.7% of non-immigrants
homeless immigrants are under represented
are prone to poor mental and physical health
poor mental health is consistently associated with homelessness
face disadvantages in the following areas:
language barriers, Canadian knowledge, income, experience, exclusion
(Pathak, S. 2012, Pg. 15) THE BIGGEST CHALLENGE FACED BY THE CANADIAN GOVERNMENT REFLECTING IMMIGRATION HOUSING IS THE ABILITY TO ENSURE THE AVAILABILITY OF MORE AFFORDABLE HOUSING (Pathak, S. 2012, Pg. 15) 1896 1901 1920 1930 1940 1969 1974 Groups of unrelated mill workers often would share rooms. In some cases eight to ten people would occupy a single room, which often had no furniture, with the workers sleeping on a pile of straw or sawdust.
Disease was spread through contaminated water supplies and open sewers. In large centers people lived in crude shanties and shacks some not being completely enclosed, some with dirt floors.
These areas had narrow paths between odd shaped lots and buildings. Sanitary facilities were nonexistent.
These slum areas had extremely high population densities. housing improved during the 19th century.
- public health acts were introduced covering things such as sewage, hygiene and lot sizes increased Health conditions improved over the course of the 19th century because of better sanitation; the famines that troubled rural areas did not happen in industrial areas.
however people in urban areas particularly children died due to diseases spreading through the cramped living conditions. Tuberculosis, lung diseases , cholera and typhoid were also common 1896- Gold was discovered in the Klondike
It triggered a "stampede" of people. between 30,000 and 40,000 individuals.
. The Klonsmalldike Gold Rush ended in 1899 Fashionable homes of the time boasted large verandas and leaded glass.
Even with 400,000 new houses built nationwide from 1901 to 1911, affordable housing was hard to find.
Most workers are poor — taking home less than $500 a year, not enough to survive. As the west was being settled it led to further displacement of native groups.
Numerous reserves were abolished, and valuable land was sold off by the federal government.
Aboriginals face increasing government control over their lives.
Inflation had more than doubled the cost of living between 1914-1918 while wages had not increased.
Many joined unions to fight for a better living and working conditions. 1920s- New industries and people living in the area made increased demands on hydro power.
Canada soon became the second largest producer of hydro power in the world 1930s- Housing co-operatives in Canada started,
Nova Scotia Antigonish Movement promoted co-operatives that built houses for their members.
When construction was complete, the houses were sold to the members
Similar building co-operatives were formed in Quebec between the wars. During the postwar years returning veterans and a widespread housing shortage pushed prices up sharply in the late 1940s and early 1950s. 1969 to 1974 public housing programs underwent extensive change
. A $200 million program in 1970 stimulated innovative solutions for housing low-income Canadians In 1974 the NHA was amended, existing public housing was to continue to provide accommodation for low-income households, rural and First Nations programs were added; and new social housing was to be built Between 1974 and 1986 governments shifted to funding non-profit groups such as churches,
co-operatives and municipalities in order to provide affordable housing Since 1995, British Columbia and Québec have been the only provinces funding new social housing.
Declining support in the face of rising prices led to an increase in the homeless population. Estimates of the national homeless population vary. In the Metro Vancouver area the number of homeless people increased from 300 to 1100 during the early 2000s The average home in Canada now costs about $350,000, roughly five times the average household income Homelessness: the condition of people without a regular dwelling. Linda Panos in her journal article "Homelessness and Special Events" presented the following statistics (2010):
100 million people were estimated to be homeless in the year 2005.
75-80% of homeless individuals are men.
In Fort McMurray which has a population 65,000, it was estimated that in June, 2007 there were as many as 500 homeless people
In 2006 there were as many as 9000 people that were homeless in Ottawa
Homeless people are 8-10 times more likely to develop health problems (Pathak, S. 2012, Pg. 15)
2007: 80 shelter beds to every 100,000 people (Pathak, S. 2012, Pg. 15)
2007: 300,000 people were estimated to be homeless, which translates to 1% of the overall population (Pathak, S. 2012, Pg. 15) Incomes that are too low and rents that are too high cause a lack of adequate housing REFERENCES:
Graham, J. R., Swift K. J., & Delany, R. (2012). Canadian Socail Policy An Introduction. (4th
Ed.). Toronto, On: Pearson Canada Inc.
Panos, L. (2010). Homelessness and Special Events: HOMELESS PLEASE HELP. Lawnow, 35(2),
Pathok, S., David Low, M. M., Franzini, L., & Michael Swint, J. J. (2012). A Review of Canadian
Policy on Social Determinants of Health. Review Of European Studies, 4(4), 8-22.
Schiff, J., & Schneider, B. (2010). Housing for the Disabled Mentally Ill: Moving Beyond
Homogeneity. Canadian Journal Of Urban Research, 19(2), 108-128.
Sutter, R. (2011). Vancouver Real Estate Prices Versus Wages – Can The Locals Afford to
Buy Here? Vancouver Real Estate Update. Retrieved from
prices-versus-wages-%E2%80%93-can-the-locals-afford-to-buy-here/ March 16, 2009: Alberta Secretariat for Action on Homelessness laid out a 3.3 billion dollar strategy to end homelessness by 2019.
January 2008: The City of Calgary released “Calgary’s 10 Year Plan to End Homelessness”
2000 - 2003, the federal government signed agreements with a number of territories and provinces promising to provide funding to help increase affordable housing.
2009: Federal budget indicated that the government intends to provide over one billion dollars toward social housing in Canada. (Panos, L. (2010), 14-17). The government does provide low income individuals with assistance regarding their housing situations through residential assistance programs
The programs include the following:
Emergency Repair Program- government provides assistance to people requiring financial aid in order to complete emergency repairs
Residential Rehabilitation Assistance Program- provides funding to ensure that minimum health and safety concerns are considered up to standard
(Pathak, S. 2012, Pg. 15) 13% of Canadians live in inadequate, unaffordable, or unsuitable housing (Pathak, S. 2012, Pg. 15) Statistics:
5.3% of tenants spend more then 50% of their income on rent
renters are 4 times more likely to live in core housing need (Pathak, S. 2012, Pg. 15) Facilities that are provided to homeless individuals are as follows:
Health Care services
Harm Reduction Methods House prices rise three times faster than wages over a decade
2001 - 2011: the price of the average home increased by 94%, while wages rose by just 29%
According to the 2008 census the median total income for Greater Vancouver families (households with two or more related individuals) was $68,670.
This compared to $72,120 in St. John’s NF
$74,040 in Halifax
$73,780 in Quebec City
$90,990 in Ottawa
$83,220 in Oshawa
$74,830 in Kingston,
$76,220 in Hamilton
$81,480 in Regina
$91,570 in Calgary
$88,190 in Edmonton
$70,150 in Winnipeg
$77,810 in Victoria.
Sutter, R. (2011). Para. 2. Housing for Intellectually Disabled 1970's and 1980's: correlation between housing and treatment
new 'natural' settings were established in the late 1970's - Creation of group homes by local mental health facilities
treatment plans were created, and patients were to achieve expectations, then progress to independent living situations
Often these independent living situations resulted in homelessness due to a lack of continued services
Housing facilities include: group homes, boarding homes, community residences, dedicated apartment buildings, and supervised apartments
therapeutic services are provided the following methods: on and off site by assisting staff members, local and central treatment opportunities, and day rehabilitation treatments
(Schiff, J., and Schneider, B., 2010, Pg. 113) Housing First: promotes stable housing as a precondition for participating in psychiatric treatment.
Continuum of Care Model: people diagnosed with mental illness are expected to pass through successive stages of accommodation
Housing Stability Model: explains that there are multiple domains that must be addressed in the housing process for individuals diagnosed with mental disabilities (Schiff, J., and Schneider, B., 2010, Pg. 114) Policies:
Early Housing Policies were concerned of accommodations for mentally disabled individuals following deinstitutionalization
1993-1999: focus shifted to the types of accommodations
1999- present: focus is on the entirety of the individual, including their treatment processes etc. (Schiff, J., and Schneider, B., 2010, Pg. 115)
Immigration practices reflect the
Institutional Approach, and they came
into effect in 1962. ( Graham, J. et al. 2012, Pg. 33)