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Biology Seminar

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by

Abhilash Keluth

on 2 November 2016

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Transcript of Biology Seminar

BIOLOGY CLASS SEMINAR
Group 1 - Abhilash, Anthea, Ashley, Azim, Hadiq, Jennifer, Karthika, Mohammed & Nehal
Table of Contents
1) Kwashiorkor
2) Marasmus
3) Chicken Pox
4) Depression
5) Cancer
Kwashiorkor
Severe protein malnutrition
More frequent in children
Characterized by edema, irritability, swollen kidney etc.
May lead to death
Causes
Lack of protein in diet
Famines/Lack of food
Other ailments
Symptoms
Normal body functions shutdown
Change in skin and hair color and texture
Damaged immune system
Failure to gain weight/grow
Swelling
Diagnosis
Enlarged liver
Swelling
Blood and urine tests
Other tests
Treatment
Increase consumption of carbohydrates and proteins
Vitamin and mineral supplements
Prevention
Eat enough calories and protein-rich foods.
Protein can be found in foods like –
Marasmus
Causes
Severe malnutrition
More frequent in children
Body weight < 60%
Different from Kwashiorkor since it is inadequate intake of all nutrients
'Marasmus' comes from Greek 'marasmos' - decay
Death is common when treatment is not available
Improper feeding
Other diseases
Defective hygiene
Usually caused by 2 or more causes
Symptoms
Shrunken, wasted appearance
Loss of muscle and fat mass
No severe edema
Unusual body temperatures
Decreased consciousness
Diagnosis
Check for symptoms
Physical exams
Height and weight measurements
Treatment
Consume nutrient rich food
Problem - Child needs a greater amount of nutrients and calories but the disease makes it harder to ingest food
Prevention
Consume sufficient amounts of food.
Chicken Pox
Causes
The varicella-zoster virus causes the chickenpox.
Spreads through - saliva, coughing, sneezing and contact with blisters.
Mild and common illness
Communicable disease
Characterized by rashes and fever
Affects almost all children
Rarely occurs in adults
Called 'Chicken pox' because the rashes resembled chickpeas or even peck marks of a chicken
Symptoms
Most prominent symptom - rashes
The rashes have 3 stages:
1) Developing red or pink bumps all over your body
2) Bumps filled with fluid that leak
3) Bumps that scab over and begin to heal
Feeling tired and unwell
High temperature feeling sick
Aching, painful muscles
Loss of appetite
Diagnosis
Check for symptoms, especially rashes
Treatment
Wait for the virus to pass through the system
Stay at home, do not go to public places
Medications, lukewarm baths, applying unscented lotion, ointments and wearing lightweight, soft clothing can relieve and sooth itching
Prevention
Chicken pox vaccine prevents chicken pox in 90% of children who receive it
Older children and adults can also get vaccinated
After contracting the disease once, the body develops antibodies and hence the virus will not do any harm again
Cancer
Group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth
Over 100 cancers affect humans

Tumors are created when a mutated/abnormal cell survives and divides to create a growth

There are 2 types of tumors - Benign and Malignant tumors

Benign tumors
- Not usually not life threatening, called non-cancerous tumors.
Malignant tumors
- Invade other tissues and organs, are cancerous.
Causes
Factors which increase the risk of cancer/carcinogens:

Chemical carcinogens
- Chemicals that increase the risk of cancer. Tobacco, chemicals etc.

Age
- As age increase, body weakens and there are a greater no. of damaged cells

Lifestyle factors
- Diet, obesity, alcohol, red meats etc.

Radiation
- UV rays cause skin cancer

Infection
- Hepatitis B or C increases risk of liver cancer

Immune system
- Poor immune system increases the risk of some cancers

Genetic makeup
- Cancer causing genes can be inherited
Symptoms
General Symptoms
- Symptoms of almost all cancers

Unexplained weight loss –
Patients lose weight, cause is unknown
Fever
- Very common with cancer, but not an early sign
Fatigue
- Extreme tiredness, late sign and increases with time
Pain
- Early symptom with some cancers, late for most
Skin and hair changes
– Many cancers can cause changes in skin and hair
Symptoms of certain types of cancer
Change in bowel habits - Colon Cancer
Sores that do not heal - Skin Cancer
Leukoplakia - Mouth Cancer
Blood in stool - Colon or Rectal Cancer
Lump in the breast - Breast Cancer
Coughing blood + Hoarseness - Lung Cancer
Trouble swallowing food - Esophageal Cancer
Coughing + Hoarseness - Larynx/Thyroid Cancer
Headaches - Brain Cancer
Diagnosis
Check for symptoms
Personal and family
medical history
Lab tests
- Urine tests, blood tests etc. Not always sure signs
Imaging procedures
- Doctors use CT scan, Nuclear scan, Ultrasound, MRI, X-rays etc. to scan the interior of the body an looks for signs of cancer.
Biopsy
- Most common; Doctors inspect sample tissues to check for abnormalities
Standard methods for treatment -
Surgery
- Abnormal tissue is destroyed using temperature, light, lasers etc.
Chemotherapy
- A drug aimed to cure cancer or relieve symptoms
Radiation therapy
– Using high doses of radiation to kill and slow down growth of cancer cells
Immunotherapy
– Substances are used to improve the body’s immune system to fight cancer.
Usually more than one method is used.
Treatment
Prevention
What is Cancer? How is it spread ?
NORMAL CELLS DIVIDE
ABNORMAL CELLS DIVIDE

C
A
N
C
E
R
Avoid risk factors of cancer

Have a proper diet, physical exercise, get immunization, get health care etc.

Follow new cancer observations.
Ex – Oct 26, 2015: WHO says excessive
consumption of processed and red meats
causes cancer.
Thank You
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Full transcript