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Schizophrenia

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alicia eroh

on 12 June 2011

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Transcript of Schizophrenia

Quote "Sometimes in our confusion, we see not the world as it is, but the world though eyes blurred by the mind.” Statement of Purpose Artwork Michael D. Edens Vincent van Gogh Schizophrenia presents three areas of symptoms and deficits, and is diagnosed based on their presence. These areas include positive symptoms (hallucinations and/or delusions), negative symptoms (decreases in interest, motivation, and interpersonal interaction), and cognitive deficits (problems with attention, memory, and/or problem-solving). We provide medication treatment, skill building groups and therapy , and cognitive remediation, and we facilitate vocational rehabilitation in order to address all these areas.. It appears that genetic, prenatal, and childhood experience all contribute to the development of the illness. Severe symptoms usually appear in late adolescence and early adulthood, but are often proceeded by decline in function and cognition. People with schizophrenia can often do well at work or school when they actively participate in appropriate treatment. The staff here find it very rewarding working with people with schizophrenia.
Hope this info is helpful.
--Warren Thime PhD Interview: This portfolio will attempt to correct the misconceptions about schizophrenia. This psychological disease is widely misunderstood. Through Hollywood and other misrepresentations of the disorder, many people have developed completely wrong opinions of it. This is a very complex disease with a long history and many people do not understand that. This portfolio will present you with facts and information to give you a better understanding of the disorder. It will tell you the history and background of the disorder along with some facts important to understanding the disorder. I chose this topic because after learning about it in class I found I had some questions that I had unanswered. I found it so interesting to learn about the disorder, what it would be like to have it, and the history of it. I also would like to further pursue psychology and psychological disorders in college and hopefully as a career, so I was excited to get the chance to learn more about it. Long-Acting Risperidone and Oral Antipsychotics in Unstable Schizophrenia
Background
Long-acting injectable risperidone, a second-generation antipsychotic agent, may improve adherence to treatment and outcomes in schizophrenia, but it has not been tested in a long-term randomized trial involving patients with unstable disease.
Method
We randomly assigned patients in the Veterans Affairs (VA) system who had schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and who had been hospitalized within the previous 2 years or were at imminent risk for hospitalization to 25 to 50 mg of long-acting injectable risperidone every two weeks or to a psychiatrist's choice of an oral antipsychotic. All patients were followed for up to 2 years. The primary end point was hospitalization in a VA or non-VA psychiatric hospital. Symptoms, quality of life, and functioning were assessed in blinded videoconference interviews.
Results
Of 369 participants, 40% were hospitalized at randomization, 55% were hospitalized within the previous 2 years, and 5% were at risk for hospitalization. The rate of hospitalization after randomization was not significantly lower among patients who received long-acting injectable risperidone than among those who received oral antipsychotics (39% after 10.8 months vs. 45% after 11.3 months; hazard ratio, 0.87; 95% confidence interval, 0.63 to 1.20). Psychiatric symptoms, quality of life, scores on the Personal and Social Performance scale of global functioning, and neurologic side effects were not significantly improved with long-acting injectable risperidone as compared with control treatments. Patients who received long-acting injectable risperidone reported more adverse events at the injection site and more extrapyramidal symptoms.
Conclusion
Long-acting injectable risperidone was not superior to a psychiatrist's choice of oral treatment in patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder who were hospitalized or at high risk for hospitalization, and it was associated with more local injection-site and extrapyramidal adverse effects. I chose this article because it is very relevant to my topic. There are a lot of schizophrenics that with the right medication and therapy can lead pretty normal lives so if we could perfect a medication to help that, then more severe cases can also lead a normal life. That would be an amazing step for the disorder. This would mean that there would be hope; it may also help to correct the false name given to the disorder. The more people with schizophrenia who act normal, the less people will fear the disorder.
While I have expressed that I do agree with researching new medications, I do not however, agree with a harmful or counterproductive medication. I agree that they should return to old medications because there are no real benefits to using it. If anything there are more disadvantages. The results show that almost all of the patents needed to be hospitalized, so why give them unneeded medication when they will eventually end up hospitalized anyway. If the medication does not work they could just go to therapy, and eventually become hospitalized, if needed.
As for the medication they use now, why do they use it if it does not work? It’s good that they are trying to progress and make the medication more precise; however I believe that until they are successful they should not be giving out any medication, unless it is desperately needed. If the medication cannot do its job of keeping them out of the hospitals, why not just wait until they are hospitalized to medicate them? Hospitalization is obviously inevitable according to these results, so I believe doctors should just monitor severe cases that have the potential to need hospitalization. Then once they are hospitalized, the doctors can give them strong medication to stabilize them. Journal Article Poetry Hideous voices
whispering through
the cracks of a broken mind.
A mind that once housed
thoughts
memories
dreams.
The remaining pieces
now plagued
with unrelenting numbness
and indifference.
Humpty Dumpty
has a better chance
of being put
back together.
-Marea E. Johnson Why a gun at night?
Invading monsters
Attack the right
Flank of my brain
I stay up wondering
Of well, you know…
Then I see day dawning
And I clean up the blood
Doesn't night make you sigh?
Dressed up all in black
Shiny little diamonds lie
Winking like they know
It's getting cooler
I open up the windows
Freezing my open mind
Moths scream as the wind blows
Why a gun by my bed?
An artist's brush (with death)
A promise to the voices in my head
I feel more secure
My gun is my pen
My monsters are thoughts
Of lust and hate and other sin
Voices whisper congratulations
-Beat Spiccoli Imagine,
Imagine starting your car engine,
Running away before the problem begins,
Imagine feeling like people are always there,
Can’t escape them anywhere.
They get inside your brain and read your mind,
Discovering all the secrets you cannot hide.
Imagine hearing voices that aren’t there,
People find you crazy, but you don’t care.
Your ambitions fade with your so called “sanity,”
Honestly, it’s a difficulty, seeing things only you see.
Hearing things that aren’t there,
Around me, you’d better beware.
They call me dangerous, crazy and insane,
But how can you judge me before you know my name,
Movies and media caused people to think badly of me,
There’s a stigma in the public eye that makes it hard to see,
The real me.
I’m not much different from any of you,
I just do things you don’t do,
I’m depressed, I hear voices and see things too,
But I’m harmless, that’s the truth,
Oh and the voices are too. Personal Poetry Psychiatric institutions around the world
Photographs by Eugene Richards
Basic human rights often seem not to apply to the mentally ill or mentally retarded. This was the conclusion of photographer Eugene Richards, who wandered the world to document the animalistic conditions of psychiatric institutions in Paraguay, Armenia, Mexico, Hungary and Kosovo for his new book, A Procession of Them . Most of these institutions mix patients together without regard for condition or temperament, leaving the dangerous ones free to prey upon other patients, including children and even a few perfectly sane castaways, who simply have nowhere else to go. Some of the worst abuses are being reined in, thanks to the efforts of Mental Disability Rights International (MDRI). Here, at a facility in Asuncion, Paraguay, nearly 50 residents hold their mattresses in a courtyard while their rooms are hosed down. Journal Article I think this is awful. I knew there was abuse in insane asylums, however I had no idea that it still went on. I guess I was under the impression that because the United States had overcome the abuse, everyone else did also. This is an absolutely horrific sight. It is completely unfair and torturous to the patients. These people are treated like animals, locked in cages. They are abused neglected and left at the mercy of other, potentially more dangerous patients. Each patient needs his or her own special attention depending on their disorders. I believe that more people should be made aware of these awful things happening, so something can be done to stop it. These facilities will just agitate disorders, and make them worse. Suicide rates will increase and disorders will become more severe (depending on the disorder). It is bad to lock a perfectly sane person in a facility such as these, imagine what it would do to an insane person. I chose this photo because Schizophrenics often have a difficulty differentiating reality from fantasy. As you can see there is a face in the picture, however, the scribbles around it keep it from looking completely realistic. The scribbled lines in the picture represent the blurred lines between fact and fantasy. The face in the background represents the paranoia and fear that accompanies this disorder. The face has an empty expression because most schizophrenics do not have the ability to show emotion. I chose this picture because the artist is schizophrenic. Many people do not know, but Van Gogh suffered with schizophrenia. This painting was actually inspired by the view out the window of his insane asylum. I think this is so interesting because you can get into his head and actually see what he was thinking and how he perceived the world around him. I chose this poem because it shows the challenges that schizophrenics have to face in everyday life. We take the power of our brain for granted, not realizing that if anything were to damage it we would not be able to function. This poem shows the difficulties the schizophrenics need to overcome to obtain the normalcy that we take for granted every day. I chose this poem because it shows the stress of being a schizophrenic. This shows how severe it can get, and how difficult things can be. Schizophrenics are constantly getting misjudged on top of the fact that they have to deal with a terrible disorder. Life is complex to them, everyday tasks prove difficult. This can cause them to have a higher risk of suicide. I chose this photo because it shows the mistreatment that mental patients had to suffer through. They were chained up and treated like savage animals. This could make any sane person go crazy, never mind what it could do to someone already coping with a disorder. I chose this photo because it shows the terrible things that insane people in other countries have to go through. In the United States treatment like this was banned; however in other countries patients unfortunately still have to suffer. I chose this photo because the woman in it is showing a prominent schizophrenic symptom, hallucinations. She is covering her ears to block out the voices she hears in her head. This is the symptom mostly associated with schizophrenia. Mt Eden - Silence lyrics

In this white wave
I am sinking in this silence
In this white wave
In this silence I believe
[4x]

Release
Witness me
I am outside
Give me peace
[2x]

Passion chokes the flower
'till she cries no more
Heaven holds a sense of wonder
And I wanted to believe
That I'd get caught up
When the rage in me subsides

In this white wave
I am sinking in this silence
In this white wave
In this silence I believe
[?x]

Release
Witness me
I am outside
Give me peace
[2x]

Passion chokes the flower
'till she cries no more
Heaven holds a sense of wonder
And I wanted to believe
That I'd get caught up
When the rage in me subsides I chose this song because I feel that it lends itself to the disorder. This song talks about silence, however schizophrenics hear voices. They rarely get to experience the silence. When she says in this silence I believe, schizophrenics long for that silence. The song is also very repetitive, like a schizophrenic. They will often replay conversations or events back in their head, making their life very repetitive, like the song. This song is also in the dubstep genre. This means that it is a song redone, they change the music to the song; make it more techno, so it flows better. The changes in beats represent the ups and downs of having the disorder, or the problems that arise. The sad tone of the song expresses the difficulties of having the disorder, not being understood and always misrepresented. http://nutrias.org/inv/cityinsaneasylum1_50.htm Throughout the course of history there have been many problems with mistreatment of the mentally ill. “When the Philadelphia Hospital for Mental Diseases opened its doors for its first patient in 1912, its population quickly grew. However, its reputation for humanity did not increase accordingly. Instead, with the influx of patients came tales of abuse, neglect, and deprivation. Insufficient funds led to the asylum quickly falling into disorder. Patients slept in hallways because of overcrowding. Patients’ naked bodies were exposed because clothing was not a necessity. Raw sewage was found on the bathroom floors during one facility inspection”(http://www.pabook.libraries.psu.edu/palitmap/Byberry.html). Then “In 1969, the Citizens Commission on Human Rights (CCHR) was established to investigate and expose psychiatric violations of human rights and to clean up the field of mental healing. For well over a century, psychiatric theory had held that because neither spiritual matters nor the mind could be measured with physical instruments, they did not exist and had no place in mental health treatment. Typical psychiatric practice meant that patients were treated like animals—they were stripped of their legal rights and possessions, brutalized and ware- housed in degrading conditions. Inmates were terrorized with electric shock treatment, often as punishment and without consent. Psychiatric lobotomies and other psychosurgical procedures destroyed minds and lives. Powerful neuroleptic (nerve seizing) drugs caused irreversible brain and nervous system damage making patients sluggish, apathetic and less alert. Furthermore, patients were assaulted and sexually abused—all under the guise of “therapy.” Any claim of a scientific basis was a hoax. Consider the story of Hollywood actress Frances Farmer, who over a six-year period in the 1940s appeared in 18 films, three Broadway plays and 30 major radio shows, all before the age of 27. Then, suffering from a series of failed relationships and addicted to amphetamines for weight control, Farmer was admitted to a Washington State psychiatric hospital. Raped by orderlies, prostituted by hospital staff to soldiers from a nearby military base, locked in a cage, subjected to electro- and insulin shock treatments, given ice-cold “shock” baths, powerful, debilitating drugs and psychosurgery— Frances Farmer’s personality and career were destroyed. Unlike many, Farmer survived and was able to tell of her experiences: “Never console yourself into believing that the terror has passed, for it looms as large and as evil today as it did in the despicable era of Bedlam. But I must relate the horrors as I recall them, in the hope that some force for mankind might be moved to relieve forever the unfortunate creatures who are still imprisoned in the back wards of decaying institutions”( http://www.mental-health-abuse.org/). Not only did this horrific abuse go on years ago, it still happens today in other countries. For example “ Turkey's psychiatric hospitals are riddled with horrific abuses, including the use of raw electroshock as a form of punishment… While the report details many types of abuses, it said the most disturbing involved the use of electroconvulsive therapy without anesthesia to treat a wide range of illnesses in adults and children. The World Health Organization has called for a ban on "unmodified" or "direct" use of the treatment and states that children should never be subjected to it in any form. The therapy, in which an electrical current is passed through the brain, was developed in the 1930's and continues to be used in mainstream psychiatry to treat a limited number of ailments. But it is normally administered with anesthesia and muscle relaxants. Without them it can be painful, terrifying and dangerous. Patients can break jaws or crack vertebrae during the induced seizures. The report quotes a 28-year-old patient at Bakirkoy Psychiatric Hospital in Istanbul as saying, "I felt like dying." The Health Ministry, which is responsible for psychiatric hospitals, said it had not yet read the report and declined to comment, other than to say that the director of the electroconvulsive therapy center at Bakirkoy denied administering unmodified electroshocks there”(http://www.nytimes.com/2005/09/29/international/europe/29turkey.html). However, Turkey is not the only place suffering from this awful abuse. “Chinese citizens trying to pursue complaints against authorities can find themselves confined in mental hospitals where they are forcibly medicated and subjected to electric shock, according to a new book published by a human rights group… One of those profiled, a man named Hu Guohong, was confined in 2008 in Wuhan Mental Hospital after pursuing compensation from provincial authorities following a physical assault. He was held in the hospital for more than 70 days. “They gave me two hours of electric shocks every day,” Hu said, also in an interview. “Others, who were genuinely disturbed, were given only two minutes.” “I cried every day because of my suffering, but no one cared.” Another petitioner, Liu Xinjuan, was confined six times from 2003-2009 in Shanghai mental hospitals for pursuing complaints related to the ownership of her home. “The tortures used by mental hospitals make you feel like you are hovering between life and death,” she said. “They gave me an injection that made me feel as if I were being stung by thousands of insects”(http://www.rfa.org/english/news/china/psychiatry-02192009163219.html). There are also problems in the United States. “Children at Riverside Hospital in Northwest Washington are at risk from "serious and persistent abuse and neglect,"… The latest report, obtained under the Freedom of Information Act, provides a grim description of Riverside: Youths were punched, choked, slapped, pushed and threatened by staff members. Children were highly medicated as a form of restraint or placed in seclusion for reasons such as "being playful with his roommate." A lack of supervision led to patients attacking fellow patients, grabbing bottles of medicines from nurses' stations and cutting themselves with shards of glass. Treatment plans were not fulfilled. The facility had broken windows and mold. It was too hot in summer and too cold in winter. The report, dated June 6, offered several specific examples of abuse. It said that on April 24, a University Legal Services staff member witnessed a hospital worker punching a male resident "two times in the eye, calling him a racial epithet." The child was taken to nearby Georgetown University Hospital for treatment."Beyond these specific complaints, ULS receives many general complaints that staff purposefully take residents to the quiet room to assault them, and that violence against residents is a regular occurrence," the report said. The department has investigated several incidents at the hospital, she said, including the death of a 14-year-old girl. After being ill for several days in late November, the girl was transferred to Georgetown University Hospital and put on a ventilator, then flown to Inova Fairfax Hospital for emergency cardiac surgery. She died in December.( http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/07/25/AR2007072502361.html) Photography 1. What have you seen to be the most effective treatment, or combination of treatments?

2. Is there anything different about a schizophrenic’s brain?

3. I understand the disorder is diagnosed in the early twenties, however do schizophrenics begin to show symptoms before then?

4. Are schizophrenics born with the disorder? If so do genetics play a part?

5. What type of therapy works best for schizophrenics?

6. How likely is a schizophrenic to lead a "normal life

7. Do all people with the disorder act the same?

8. How do you go about diagnosing schizophrenia?

9. What is it like working with schizophrenics on a daily basis?

10. Is it possible to overcome schizophrenia?

11. Are schizophrenics harmful to themselves or others? Blog Research During our class we learned about disorders, one in specifically schizophrenia. We simply touched on the idea of schizophrenia, however, I wanted to learn more about it, so I decided to research it. We learned about diagnosing this disorder, the symptoms, and other things. As we talked about this strange disorder I found myself fascinated. I wanted to know more, who common is it? Is it genetic? Can it be overcome? How is it treated? After conducting this project, I found all this and more. I found a lot of fascinating information. Class Connection Personal Photography Personal video
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