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Module 1

Human Evolution & Prehistoric Dress, Motivations for Dressing, Body Art, Body Modification

Paige Rigas

on 4 October 2012

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Transcript of Module 1

Humans belong to the biological group of primates. We have evolved over time into the species we are, but our closest living relatives are chimpanzees and bonobos. Human Evolution & Prehistoric Dress Evolution happens by means of sexual selection and natural selection Natural selection varies between humans. It is the traits and genes that are passed down through the generations in order to help humans survive. Natural Selection Sexual Selection Sexual selection are the genes and traits that are inherited, but do not help survival. These traits are for seduction purposes, and are designated to increase reproduction success. Nobody knows for sure why early humans adorned their bodies, but we do know that ochre was one of the first body adornments used by early humans to decorate their skin. Ochre is a pigment created from minerals. Relationship between evolution
and dress: Awl. 4. Photograph. Israel Museum, Collections of IDAM. This is a tool from the stone age that was used for piercings. It is called an awl. Venus Figure. 20. The Minneapolis Institute of Arts, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA. Artstor. Web. 15 Sept. 2012. Stone art was a popular form of art in the stone age. Early humans depicted their way of life by carving something important to them into stone. The following is a prehistoric woman carved into a rock. Draped-anything that is wrapped, folded,
or falls over the body.

Poncho-anything with a hole/slit cut for the
head and draped over the body. When early humans began wearing clothing, they wore non-sewn clothing. There are 2 types of non-sewn clothing: Jessica's scarf is a form of
draped clothing This cape would fall under the
poncho category There are 3 types of cut and sewn clothing: Eventually, early humans came up with new and improved clothing called cut ans sewn. Cut and sewn clothing is tailored. 1) T-shaped=a clothing item with a slit for the arms and head.

2) Coat-a clothing item with an opening all the way down the front.

3) Bifurcated: a clothing item designed to cover each individual leg and allow movement. Bifurcated Coat T-Shaped Nobody knows exactly why people started to wear clothes in the first place, but researchers have come up with ten different dress motivations that inspire us to dress the way we do. Dress Motivations Any kind of apparel you would wear to protect yourself. 1. PROTECTION For example, sunglasses, shoes, or a helmet. Religious objects like a cross can also be worn for the purpose of protection. Rigas, Paige. "Jake and I."
2012. JPG file. Jake and I are wearing sunglasses as a way to protect our eyes from the sun. Protection Anything you would wear to assist you in your work and/or survival so you can have your hands free. 3. UTILITY For example, a bag/backpack, a belt, a baby carrier, and eye glasses are all items that are worn for utility purposes. Rigas, Paige. "Backpacks." 2011. JPG file. We are wearing backpacks so we don't have to carry our books in our hands. UTILITY Apparel that is worn to emphasizes body parts that are considered attractive. It is clothing that is worn to attract the sexual attention of others. Different body parts are considered attractive in different time periods. This is called shifting erogenous zones. 4. SEDUCTION For example, anything made of lace, low cut, or that shows a great deal of skin is worn for seduction purposes. Kinsella, Jake. "Nic & Lex." 2012. JPG file. SEDUCTION Alexa's crop top and Nicole's sheer T-shirt are worn for seduction purposes. Any item worn for the main purpose of showing your belief system. 2. MAGICO-RELIGIOUS OR DEVOTIONAL For example, wearing a berca or a cross is for magico-religious or devotional purposes. Rigas, Paige. "Cross." 2012. JPG file. MAGICO I wear my cross for Magico purposes. 6. PERSONAL EXPRESSION (Ego or Vanity) Anything you would wear for the main reason of showing your own personality and likes through your clothing. For example, wearing a green shirt because green is your favorite color, or wearing a shirt with your favorite singer on it. Barci, Nicole. "Jake & I." 2012. JPG file. PERSONAL EXPRESSION I chose to wear a green shirt my first night out at New Paltz because green is my favorite color. 5. GROUP IDENTIFICATION Showing ones affiliation with a group through
their clothing. For example, wearing a sports jersey to show that you are on the team would be considered group identification. Barnaby, Jackie. "Team." 2011. JPG file. We wore pink jerseys in volleyball last year to show that we were part of the same team and support breast cancer research and awareness. GROUP IDENTIFICATION Wearing clothing that shows your status/standing within your group. 7. STATUS OR HIERARCHY For example, a king wearing a crown to show that he is the king, or a priest wearing his robes to show he is a priest. Rigas, Paige. "Friends." 2011. JPG file. Amanda is wearing a crown to show that we are going out for her birthday and that she is the birthday girl. STATUS/HIERARCHY Clothing that is worn to create a response in other people. It can create positive, negative, fearful, or sexual responses. 8. AROUSE EMOTION For example, when people dress scene, punk, or goth to get a reaction out of others. Rigas, Paige. "Cori." 2012. JPG file. AROUSE EMOTION Cori's Halloween costume was intended to scare us. She woke us up in the middle of the night dressed like this. 9. MODESTY When you dress to cover the body, particularly the genitalia. For example, wearing robe when you get out of the shower in college to go back to your dorm. Rigas, Paige. "Nicole." 2012. JPG file. MODESTY My roommate wearing a robe back to the dorm after she took a shower this morning Wearing anything with symbols (nonverbal messages) to communicate things like status, loyalties, family connections, age, etc. 10. COMMUNICATE WITH
SYMBOLS For example, wearing a wedding ring, or a sports team logo. Rigas, Paige. "Yankee Game." 2012. JPG file. COMMUNICATE WITH SYMBOLS Danny and Anthony are wearing Yankee logos when we went to the game for Danny's birthday to show that they wanted the Yankees to win. Body Art is anything that can be painted or put on the body that is semi-permanent but can be removed somewhat easily. BODY ART For example, hair dye, makeup, temporary tattoos, face paint, nail polish, and spray tans. Ochre was the first form of body art used by early humans. My cousins and I got our faces painted when we were younger. BODY ART BODY ART Alexa and I used eyeliner to draw whiskers and a black nose on our faces for Halloween. BODY ART Rachel died a strip of her hair blue because blue is her favorite color. Rigas, Maria. "Cousins." 2005. JPG file. Rahill, Katharyn. "Halloween." 2011. JPG file. Rigas, Paige. "City." 2012. JPG file. A body modification is something you do to your body that creates a permanent change. It usually involves surgery or other medical procedures. BODY MODIFICATION This is a TOTEM because we modified our bodies in a way that imitates an animal. Blue is the most popular "favorite color" because it has life giving sources (it is the color of water, sky, etc.), so it gives humans a positive feeling. There are five types of body modifications:
1. Tattoo-a form of permanent body paint
2. Scarification-the creation of raised patterns on the skin by purposely making precise incisions
3. Piercing-piercing a hole in the skin through the skin and inserting an ornament made of metal, bone, glass, etc.
4. Surgical Modification-surgical procedures/enhancements
5. Reshaping-wearing some sort of embellishment on the body that forces it to conform to a different shape over time Nicole got a second nose piercing when she came to college because she loved how the first one looked, and thought that getting a second would make her look more unique. Rigas, Paige. "Piercing." 2012. JPG file. My cousin, Tasha, got breast implants two years ago because she felt uncomfortable in a bathing suit. Abby got a tattoo of a dove holding a ribbon that says "R.I.P. Dad" to show that he is always a part of her whether he's physically here or not, and she is always thinking of him. Rigas, Paige. "Tasha." 2011. JPG file. Genis, Hailey. "Abby's Tattoo." 2012. JPG file. TATTOO PIERCING SURGICAL MODIFICATION Barci, Nicole. "My Little Brother."
2005. JPG file. Rigas, Paige. "Katie and Jess." 2012. JPG file. Barci, Nicole. "College."
2012. JPG file. Rigas, Maria. "Carli's Graduation." 2012. JPG file.
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