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The Theories of the Origin of Life

SBI3U - Evolution
by

Kim Matthews

on 10 April 2013

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Transcript of The Theories of the Origin of Life

The Theories of the Origin of Life the study of the beginnings and early development of life. Theories Creationism Panspermia Deep Gas Theory Clay Theory Physical - Chemical Spontanious Generation Creationism - This theory depends on what you believe because is based on the God of your religion as in Christianity (Catholic, Orthodox, Protestant, etc.) where it is believed that God created the earth in 6 days and on the seventh rested. In other religions they believe that some kind of strange force or gods created everything so this theory mostly depends on the beliefs that the person has. Proposed by Herman Ludwig von Helmholtz in 1879, and finally promoted by Arrhenius in 1908, states that life originated in outer space and that the first living beings were spores and bacteria that landed on Earth in meteorites that came from a planet where there was life and then, solar radiations dispersed these spores and bacteria. This is the best-accepted theory so far regarding the origin of life. It was called physical-chemical theory because it is based on the bonding of chemical substances through nature’s physical processes. It is known as abiogenesis, the theory which defines how organic life on Earth could have arisen from inorganic matter. Thomas Gold proposes that bacteria-like organisms living in extreme conditions were the origin of all other life. Large amounts of hydrocarbons in unreachable places inside the earth were the source of energy for these organisms.
As has been proven in the archeabacteria which can survive at temperatures of up to 200ºC and pressure up to 350 atmospheres. Clay was abundant in pre-biotic Earth. Composed of silicate crystals. Clay in water or mud, could serve as a step where organic life originates from inorganic matter. Sticky clay crystals traps molecules onto their surfaces - Surface properties of silicate crystals serve as catalyst for monomers, allowing for creation of complex organic molecules. The complex molecules then replicate independently. In the 5th century Thales of Miletus establish this theory that life was originated in mud with the combination of the elements (fire,water,air..etc) without God’s intervention. Then in the 4th century Plato and Aristotle established that life came from the dew, sea water, sweat or humid soil. Entelechy that is a supernatural force capable to give life to things that are not alive. For thousands of years mankind has tried to figure out where we came from and over the years various theories have emerged. Although several have been proved to be wrong many of them still prevail. These are the best or most popular theories of the origin of living beings: All the worlds religions Panspermia - Anaxagoras, Arrhenius, Helmholtz Physical-Chemical - John Haldane
Alexander Ivanovich Deep Gas Theory - Graham Cairns-Smith Spontaneous Generation - Thales of Miletus
Plato
Aristotle The idea that life on Earth had an extra-terrestrial origin may be traced back to the ancient Greek philospher Anaxagoras, who lived in the fifth century B.C. Anaxagoras claimed that the universe is made of an infinite number of spermata (seeds). Svante August Arrhenius Herman Ludwig von Helmholtz In 1921, Alexander Ivanovich Oparin concluded that the formation of the first organic compounds had an abiotic origin and had been generated from inorganic substances present in the atmosphere, which made it reductive and resulted in the formation of organic compounds dissolved in primitive seas and produced coacervates (a tiny spherical droplet of assorted organic molecules (specifically, lipid molecules) which is held together by hydrophobic forces from a surrounding liquid). Oparin and Haldane In 1924, John Haldane got
similar conclusions to Oparin by pointing out that, when gases from the primitive atmosphere reacted to the Sun’s ultraviolet rays, a great quantity of biomolecules, like sugar and amino acids, were formed.

This is considered a
Primordial Soup
Theory Clay Theory - They believed that the mud created fish, and the meat when decomposing produced flies because that was they observed. In the 19th century Louis Pasteur establish that microorganisms die when exposed to heat & that they can’t come from a combination of airborne germs. A lot of scientists believed this theory until the microscope was created. Thomas Gold Graham Cairns-Smith Graham Cairns-Smith defines this theory as life producers - “mud organisms” that are clay silicate crystals that replicate, grow and evolve through natural selection; including organic molecules and RNA types. Omne vivum ex vivo

Latin for "all life [is] from life." Modern theories state that the life arose on the early earth by a series of progressive biochemical reactions.
This idea was called biopoiesis, the process of living matter evolving from self-replicating but nonliving molecules.
Due to intermolecular attraction they became capable of growth and division. + many more...
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