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Copy of Health: Sexuality

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Narine Nersisyan

on 9 February 2014

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Transcript of Copy of Health: Sexuality

Responsibities to Yourself:

increased privileges, treated more like an adult, make decisions that direct your life, behave consistently, and your pathway to adulthood will be marked by a growing responsibility for your own decisions and actions.
Serakan kyanq
Reproductia & Hatwuyq
The endocrine system regulates long-term changes in the body such as growth and development . It also controls many of your body’s daily activities.
Like the use of energy from a
meal or response to stress.
produces and releases substances
directly into the bloodstream that
signal changes in other parts of the body.
Endocrine gland-
chemical substance produced by endocrine gland. It’s the “chemical messenger”.
HORMONES-
The endocrine glands include hypothalamus, pituitary gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid glad, adrenal glands, pancreas, and reproductive glands.
an endocrine gland located in the brain that is connected to both the nervous and endocrine systems.
Hypothalamus
Pituitary glands- pea-sized endocrine gland in brain that controls growth, reproduction, and metabolism
period of sexual development
during which a person becomes
sexually mature and physically able to reproduce
PUBERTY
Ova-
the reproductive cells in females
-eggs
Sperm: males reproductive cells
Fertilization: a sperm cell may join with an egg
Testes: the male reproductive glands
Heredity
- the passing on, or transmission,
of biological traits from
parent to child
1. Fertilization
In the first week after fertilization, the fertilized egg undergoes many cell divisions and returns to the uterus.
2. The zygote
Zygote- united egg & sperm
Still traveling through fallopian tube- begins to divide
3. Cell Division
Cells divide-growing structure is an embryo
4. The Blastocyst
Sphere of 50-100 cells surrounding a hollow center
5. Implantation
Implantation- blastocyst attaches to the wall of the uterus
Ovaries- are the reproductive glands in which eggs are produced
19.1
Development Before Birth
Chromosomes - tiny structures found within cells that carry information about the characteristics you will inherit.
Adolescence – [between ages of 12-19] gradual change from a child into an adult
During adolescence, the reproductive system matures, adult features appear, and height and muscle mass increase.
*Sex Cells - sperm or eggs*
Reproductive maturity- ability to produce children
Genes - a section of a chromosome that determines or affects a characteristic or trait.
physical changes that develop during puberty, but are not directly involved in reproduction
Estrogen-
Dominant trait- one that appears in an offspring whenever its gone is present
Production of testosterone
Production of sperm
Secondary Sex Characteristics
Mental changes during adolescence improved abstract thinking, reasoning skills, and impulse control.
activates certain

physical changes at puberty
During adolescence, individuals start to define meaning in their lives, a set of personal values, and a sense of self.
Recessive trait- appears in an offspring only when the dominant form of the gene is
NOT
present
Progesterone-
testosterone: a sex hormone
activates changes to a women's reproductive system before and during pregnancy
Ovulation-
is when one of the ovaries release a ripened egg
Genetic Disorder - an abnormal condition
Scrotum: a sack of skin that hangs outside the main body cavity, which holds the testes.
Genetic Disorders are caused by the inheritance of an abnormal gene or chromosomes.
The functions of the female reproductive system are to produce sex hormones, to produce eggs, and to provide a nourishing environment in which a fertilized egg can develop into a baby.
Many genetic disorders, such as cystic fibrosis and hemophilia, are recessive traits.
Some diseases for which a genetic link is suspected or has been identified are breast cancer, colo cancer, high blood pressure, diabetes, and some forms of Alzheimer's disease.
This is outside the main body cavity so the temperature can be lower
The sperm needs lower temps to develop properly and survive
Fallopian tubes-
Undescended testis: where both the testes may not descend into the scrotum before birth
Surgery is usually performed before age two to correct this condition
Penis: external sex organ, which sperm leaves the body
Tip of the penis is covered with loose skin called foreskin
For males foreskin is removed shortly after birth (not all males)
This surgical procedure is known as circumcision
passageways that carry eggs away from the ovaries
For most diseases, your environment and your behavior affect your risk as much as or even more than your gene.
You can control your habits and behaviors by using sunscreen to reduce your risk of skin cancer.
Uterus-
Genetic Testing involves the analysis of a blood sample for the presence of abnormalities in specific genes.
is a hollow, muscular, pear-shaped organ

Semen: mixture of sperm cells and the fluids (from 3 other glands)
 Ejaculation: the ejection of semen from the penis
o This occurs when muscles in the male reproductive system and at the base of the bladder contract, forcing semen through the urethra.
 The urethra, a tube that passes through the penis to the outside of the body- carries urine and sperm
• A valve within the urethra prevents the two fluids from mixing
Vagina-
Scientists are currently researching a technique in which healthy copies of a gene are delivered to the cells of a person who has a defective copy of the gene.
or birth canal, is a hollow, muscular passage leading from the uterus to the outside of the body
From birth to age six, children change from helpless babies into confident individuals who can do many things for themselves.
Menstrual cycle-
Birth to Eighteen Months:

born with physical skills, won't learn to smile until one month old, many of the organs and systems are not yet fully developed, and by the time of 4 months, the brain, nerves, and muscles are ready for coordinated movement.
the process when females produce only one mature egg cell
Menopause-
Eighteen Months to Three Years:

the age when children lose their babylike appearances, appetite decreases as growth slows down and physical coordination improves, gain abilities to do things for themselves, and the child's confidence grows with encouragement from parents and caregivers.
is when the ovaries slow down their hormone production and no longer release mature eggs
Pap Smear-
is when a sample of cells is taken from the cervix and examined under a microscope
- detects cocers of the cervix
Mammogram-
is a X-ray of the breast that can help detect breast cancer
The functions of the female reproductive system are to produce sex hormones, to produce eggs, to provide a nourishing environment in which a fertilized egg can develop into a baby.
Three to Six Years:
lose all traces of babyhood, become more independent and active, muscles grow, energy is high, and the curious child is "into everything," communication skills advance, begin school, learns how to behave in a group, and starts to develop a sense of right and wrong.
The female reproductive system produces eggs and provides a nourishing environment for a fertilized egg to develop.
During the menstraul cycle, an ovary releases a mature egg.
The egg travels to the uterus.

CLEANLINESS!!!!
o Thoroughly clean the external organs-penis and scrotum- DAILY
 SEXUAL ABSTINENCE!!
o The only sure fire way to eliminate your risk of sexually transmitted infections is to abstain-or refrain from-sexual activity
 PROTEXTION FROM TRAUMA!!!
o In athletic activities males should wear a protective “cup”
o No tight clothing
o Be careful when lifting heavy objects
 Hernia
 SELF-EXAMS!!!
o Pain when urinating
o Unusual discharges
o Or sores on the genitals
o Teens and young men should also examine their testes for signs of testicular cancer
If the egg is not fertilized, the uterine lining is shed and a new cycle begins.
Physical growth, mastering new skills, and making friends are key areas of development during middle and late childhood.
Days 1-4: The uterine lining is shed during menstration.
Pre-Adolescence
-

the stage of development before adolescence.
Days 5-13: An egg matures in one of the ovaries, and the uterine lining thickens.
1/3 of testicular cancer cases occur in young men in their teens and twenties
Infertility: the condition of being unable to reproduce
oUnable to produce healthy sperm or few sperm
3 causes of infertility
Exposure to certain chemicals
Mumps after puberty
Undescended testis
Days 14-15: The ovary releases the mature egg during ovulation.
Physical Growth:
a child's facial structure changes with the appearance of permanent teeth, muscles and bones continue to grow, coordination develops further, and as children enter pre-adolescence, their bones begin to grow faster, mostly in the legs, and their appetite increases.
Toxic Shock Syndrome-
 Getting proper nutrition and exercise and avoiding drugs and environmental hazards are especially important both before and throughout pregnancy
Woman need to eat about 300 more calories to help the growth of her body and the embryo or fetus
 While pregnant it is good to get exercise
Make sure you have your doctors approval of your exercise program before beginning it
 Things like horseback riding should be avoided
is when a tampon is left in the uterus for mare than 8 hours and causes a bacteria infection
Mental Development:
children learn higher-level thinking skills, feel pride in accomplishing tasks, praises from teachers/parents help increase their self-confidence, and may start taking on responsibilities at home, such as chores.
 Prenatal care: medical care during pregnancy
 Obstetrician: doctor specialized in pregnancy and childbirth
The chances of having a healthy baby greatly increase if the mother visits her doctor or clinic for regular checkups throughout pregnancy
 Trimesters: pregnancy that is divided up into three periods of time
Each is approximately three months long
Days 16-22: The egg travels through the fallopian tube to the uterus, and the uterine lining continues to thicken.
Days 23-28: The unfertiized egg enters the uterus.
Importance of Friends:
occurs at about age 10, and these feelings help children learn to work well in group situations
PMS(premenstrual syndrome)- discomfort before the menstrual cycle begins
Caring for the female reproductive system involves cleanliness, sexual adstinence, prompt treatment for infections, self-exams, and regular medical checkups.
Ovarian Cysts- are growths on the ovary
Making Everyday Decisions:
it's up to you to eat nutritious meals exercise, visit the dentist, become responsible for managing a budject, only if you buy your own clothes.
Endometriosis- is a condition in which tissue from the lining of the uterus (the endometrium) grows outside the uterus, in the pelvic cavity.
Hospice: a facility or program that provides physical, emotional, and spiritual care for dying people and support for their families
Terminal Illness: an illness for which there is no chance of recovery.
Infertility- the inability to get and stay pregnant
Resist Negative Influences:
many decisions you will face can effect your health and safety, including smoking, drinking, drugs, and sexual activity.
The five stages of dying are
Denial
Anger
Bargaining
Depression
Acceptance
Emotional Support
Staying actively involved in a dying loved one’s life will help both you and the dying person cope
 Visit the person as often as you can
 Listen to what they dying person has to say
 Try to not be shy about discussing death
 Talk about your plans and hopes
Autonomy
-
independence
After the death of a loved one, it is important not to deny your feelings. However, don’t become so overwhelmed with emotion that you forget to take care of yourself
 Try to talk about your loss
 Continue your usual routine
 Allow yourself some time to grieve
Certified Nurse/Midwife- is a nurse who is trained to deliver babies
Parents may expect their teens to stick to the older ways.

Helping others through their grief
Be a good listener
Write a sympathy note
Help with everyday errands
If necessary, help your friend get counseling
Labor- is when the mother's body pushes the fetus out of the body
Postpardum Period- are the changes that take place during the first six weeks after birth
Stillbirth- is ehen a fetus dies and is expelled from the body after the twentieth week of pregnancy
Cesarean Section(C-Section)- is a surgical method of birth
Premature Birth- is the delivery of a baby before the 37th week of pregnancy
Low Birthweight- is a newborn that weighs less then 5.5. pounds at birth
Multiple Birth- is the delivery of more than one baby
Birth takes place in three stages- labor, delivery of the baby, and delivery of the afterbirth.
Some complications result in a surgical delivery or premature birth. Low birthweight and the birth of more than one baby also may cause complications.
Risk factors for having a baby with low birth weight include smoking or dieting during pregnancy and teenage pregnancy.

Ultrasound: High-frequency sound waves
o Used in most pregnancies to create an image of the developing fetus
 Chorionic villus sampling (CVS): around the 8th week of pregnancy some women will undergo this test
 Amniocentesis: another test that may be done around the fourteenth to sixteenth week of pregnancy
 Ectopic pregnancy: blastocyst implants in the fallopian tube or elsewhere in the abdomen, instead of in the uterus
 Miscarriage: the death of an embryo or fetus in the first 20 weeks of pregnancy
 Preeclampsia (toxemia): high blood pressure, swelling of the wrists and ankles and high levels of protein in the urine
 Gestational diabetes: diabetes that develops in pregnant women
Types of multiple birth:
Identical twins: twins that develop from a single fertilized egg, or zygote.
Fraternal twins: twins that develop in two different eggs, or zygotes.
Triplets of more: the birth of three, or more, babies at once.
Physical Maturity-
is the state of being full-grown in the physical sense
Emotional Maturity-
is the full development in the emotional sense
Dementia- is a disorder characterized by loss of mental abilities, abnormal behaviors, and personality changes
Alzheimer's Disease- causes brain cells to die, resulting in the gradual loss of mental and physical functions
You will change physically and emotionally during the transition from adolescence into young adulthood. In fact, changes continue throughout your life as an adult.
To stay at your physical peek:
-maintain a healthy diet
-avoid tobacco and other drugs
- exercise regularly
- get adequate rest
- have regular medical and dental checkups
Love, compatibility, and commitment are key factors in a successful marriage.
What qualities make a marraige successful?
-Love
- Friendship
- Commitment
- Compatibility
- Communication
- Mutual respect
- Physical attraction
- Ability to compromise
Many married couples share responsibilities, both insode and outside the home.
Divorce rates are higher for couples who marry in their teens.
Aging affects many of the body systems. Exercising in water can help maintain joint flexibility.
People tend to reduce or delay the physical signs of aging when they establish healthy behaviors during their youth.
As you age:
- bones shrink in size and become more brittle
- the heart has to work harder to pump blood through the body
- memory becomes less sharp
- reflexes slow down
- skin becomes drier and less elastic
Many adults in middle adulthood enjoy spending time with their grandchildren.
19.3
20.3
18.3
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