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Copy of AP Bio- Physiology 6: Hormonal Control

6 of 11 of my Physiology Unit. Image Credits: Biology (Campbell) 9th edition, copyright Pearson 2011, & The Internet.Provided under the terms of a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. By David Knuffke.

Andrew Darnel

on 13 October 2012

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Transcript of Copy of AP Bio- Physiology 6: Hormonal Control

Urinary System Theory Applications Have Hormones, Too! "Water is the driving force of all nature."
-Leonardo da Vinci Big Questions What systems are responsible for excreting waste from our body?

What are the structures & functions of the urinary system.

What pathologies affect the urinary system? How Cells Communicate The 3 Phases of Signal Reception Why Cells Communicate (Multicellular Version) Local Signals The Immune System demonstrates Local Signaling Distance Signals Molecules are Required! Two Kinds of Hormone Molecules Advanced
Considerations The ligand isn't important.
The Response is! Cells Amplify A Message The Role of the "Second Messenger" Things Get Complicated Quickly Pheromones! Nervous Systems (Not Now!) Metamorphosis in Arthropods The Endocrine System Here They All Are! Plants Mammals Make Sure You Can: Compare the uses of cell signaling in different lineages of organisms.

Identify common features in all cell signaling mechanisms.
Compare different modes of cell signaling in animal systems

Diagram the processes by which signal transduction occurs in multicellular animals, including steroid and lipid hormone signaling pathways

Diagram the regulatory effects of various hormones in animals and plants, at the cellular and system-wide levels of organization. Any Questions? Gametes & Sexiness! The Adrenal glands are involved in producing stress hormones:
Adrenal Medulla: Epinephrine and Norepinephrine-Short-Term ("fight or flight") Response
Adrenal Cortex: Corticoids- Long-Term Response Don't Forget Me! Modes of Endocrine Function The Master Gland & The Thermostat Pituitary Hormones Released by cells, recieved by neighbors Different Chemistry Different Reception Different Responses An Epinephrine ("Adrenaline") Receptor What kind of hormone is epinephrine? Epinephrine signal transduction is mediated by G-Protein linked receptors.

G-Proteins are very common signal relay proteins for membrane receptor ligands.

"G-Protein" means it is associated with GTP

AMP is high when ATP is low Lipid Hormones Tend To Have Longer Term Effects than Peptides Estrogen is responsible for long term changes in sexual cycles (menstruation, puberty).

Estrogen activates long term responses by changing protein expression in cells.

{Vitellogenin is a precursor to nutritive egg yolk proteins present in all egg producing female animals} The Systems that send distance signals are the nervous and endocrine systems.

These are the major regulatory systems in animals.

There is a good deal of interplay between all signalling systems Generally speaking, nervous and endocrine systems have complementary purposes.

Nervous system: quick, fast, regulation. More on that later.

Endocrine system: long term, regular regulation.

Both systems interact Internal signalling molecules released due to external ("first") signals Three major hormones are responsible for the total breakdown and reorganization of juvenile arthropods into adult forms (and its ensuing awesomeness). Endocrine glands respond from nervous system cues, or from hormones made by other endocrine glands.

The Brain is the ultimate seat of control of endocrine and nervous systems The pituitary gland is typically referred to as the "master gland"
It makes control hormones for many other glands throughout the body.
Input from the hypothalamus is crucial.
The pituitary has two distinct lobes that make distinct hormones.
All pituitary hormones are peptidyl. The thyroid makes two hormones (T3 and T4) which are involved in regulating metabolism.

Iodine is necessary for proper thyroid function A "goiter" due to insufficient iodine in the diet The parathyroids produce parathyroid hormone (PTH), which is involved in regulating calcium levels in the blood.

Calcium is an important second messenger in many
cellular processes. A Tour Of Select Glands The gonads (ovaries and testes) produce the sex hormones which control:
Gamete production
Development of secondary sex characteristics (what are the primary ones?) The regulation of the menstrual cycle is the responsibility of four major hormones Pituitary Hormones:
FSH- Follicle stimulating hormone.
LH- Leutenizing hormone
Trigger development and release of a mature ovum (inside a follicle).

Ovarian Hormones:
Are involved in the development and maintenance of the uterine lining (the endometrium)

This is a very important thing that you need to understand.
A bunch of very cool feedback loops. The human menstural cycle is 28 days, EXACTLY & ALWAYS!!!

:) We're not going to spend a lot of time here.

Note: Same hormones involved here as in female gamete production, with ONE major difference. Auxin & Apical Dominance Gibberellin and lots of things Absisic Acid Prevents Growth Ethylene is Awesome! Leaf Absicion is Complex! Some Major Plant Responses Auxin Production at the Apical Bud determines the direction of plant growth Gibberellin treatment leads to "bolting" in growing plants & accelerated fruit ripening Intake of water in germinating seeds leads to gibberelin production and the breakdown of stored starch to power cotyledon growth Decreasing [ABA] leads to germination precocious! Ethylene is a gas!
It triggers growth
& Fruit Ripening Increased ethylene is associated with the "triple response" in young plants, a reaction to encountering an overhead blockage during growth Leads To Ethylene response mutants Abscision (loss of leaves),
involves interactions between many hormones, including ethylene, gibberelin, and absisic acid Epinephrine is a polar amine ligand a typical neuroendocrine signaling pathway An example of positive feedback An example of negative feedback Note: waste produced by cell metabolism must be eliminated from the body... "ligands" Signaling Molecules produced by one organism that are recieved by another organism Blood-Calcium regulation feedback loop Brain-Thyroid feedback loop
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