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Concepts of Music

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Andrew Mifsud

on 22 August 2016

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Transcript of Concepts of Music

dentification
Instrument (eg guitar) OR
Role (eg harmony) OR
Device (eg riff)
oles
Melodic
Harmonic
Rhythmic
Bass
Sound effects
ensity
Thick/Thin
Getting Thicker/Thinner
Thick then thin
Thickness can be affected by:
Number of voices per layer
Technological manipulation
Intensity of playing
Layer Relationships
Dominant or Subordinate
A vocalist accompanied by acoustic guitar
Right hand on a piano
Lead guitar and rhythm section
Upper strings and an orchestra
A congregation accompanied by an organ
Active or Inactive
Busy (many notes)
"Zadok the Priest"
lower strings bass line (crotchets),
higher strings, repeated ascending broken chord (quavers) harmonic role
melodic layer, SATB choir, brass (minims)
Layers ID and Roles
Density: Becomes thicker, adding more layers (melodic) and getting louder
Relationships
First section: upper strings dom, melodic layer then becomes more dom.
Harmonic layer was most active
Other Relationships
(D)ominant
(A)ctive
(S)ubordinate
(I)nactive

(S)olo
(U)nison:
(C)ounterpoint:
(C)all and response:

(R)hythmic unison:
(I)mitation:
(F)ills:
(P)arallel Harmonies:
(S)taggered Entry/Exit:
(S)tabs:
(S)tyle:


Solo/Unison
Solo: Delivered by a single instrument or voice
Unison/Soli: Delivered by more than one instrument or voice

Examples:
Unaccompanied piece
Violin concerto
String section playing melody
Sax solo in a jazz band
Counterpoint
Musical conversation, usually one layer is busy at a time
When layers interrupt each other creates tension - building to a climax
Music uses counterpoint/music is contrapuntal
DASI SUCC RRIFPSSS
I
R
T
ypes of Layer Relationships
Monophonic: single instrument or voice
Heterophonic: 2 or more same (with variations)
Polyphonic: More than one dominant melodic layer
Homophonic: Single melodic layer with harmonic accompaniment
Call and Response
Call by a SOLO instrument or layer
Response by a UNISON instrument or layer

Example: African vocal music
Rhythmic Unison
Despite different pitches, the rhythm of the dominant layer is the same as the subordinate or accompanying layers

Eg: four-part vocal writing
Imitation
Repetition of melodic or rhythmic ideas of one layer in another
Musical form of an echo
Often heard in rounds, cannons and other contrapuntal music
Imitation can often contain variation
Melodic fragments (motifs) can also be imitated

Fills
Breaks in dominant layer allow space to be filled by another layer
Usually happens at the end of phrases
Fills can be MELODIC, HARMONIC, RHYTHMIC or SOUND EFFECTS or combinations
Parallel Harmonies
Melodic accompaniment at a constant distance
Usually 3rds, 6ths (but can be 4ths or 5ths)
Does NOT include unison or octaves (doubling)
Adds variety and thicker texture
Staggered Entry
Gradual entry or exit
Stabs
Sudden abrupt bursts from subordinate layers
Sometimes referred to as "hits"
Could be from orchestra or band, etc.

Magic - Ben Folds Five
Discuss the use of TEXTURE in this excerpt
Intro:
Solo piano playing high melody (dominant layer)
Below this was a harmonic layer using broken chords that become more active and dominant filling the gaps between melodic phrases.
Thin density with only a solo instrument playing with homophonic texture
A:
Thicker denisty with the introduction of a solo male voice singing the dominant melodic line. Imitates and takes over this melody from the piano melody. Piano takes a more subordinate harmonic role, playing block chords, but continues to add active harmonic fills at the end of vocal phrases

A1:
Similar to above, but feeling of thicker density - instruments are playing with more force. Both layers continue, but the piano is playing a more active role that relates to the vocal melody

B:
Density continues to build with the introduction of a new layer - bass guitar playing low sustained notes. Change in melodic and harmonic parts. This sections ends with all layers ending

A2:
This section uses the same melody and harmonic progression as "A" but there are changes to the lyrics and denisty continues to build. Introduction of a rhythmic layer
Pitch
onality
Diatonic (major/minor)
Blues and Pentatonic
Modal (mix of major and min)
Atonal (no tonal centre)
Chromatic
World music (raga, microtonal)
Modern scales (12 tone row, whole tone scale)
elody
MR HT
armony
1. Identify how many melodies
2. Describe:
Phrases (musical sentences)
simple/complex
Range - how many notes
Register - low/med/high
Steps/leaps
Smooth contour/angular
3. Melodic Devices:
Repetition: ostinato, motif
Imitation (retrograde, inversion, direct)
Sequence
Single simple melody played by the piano
Starts with an anacrusis
Range of around an octave, mid register (small range)
2 long phrases with sustained notes, gradually descending in steps, chromatic at times
Dominant to tonic movement within the phrases
Repeated rhythmic pattern of long then short note (dotted minim and crotchet)
Great deal of repetition of single notes
As the melody develops becomes more complex, by increasing range and shorter note values
Melody is played expressively using rubato (push and pull time) creates a feeling of anticipation at the end of the bar (building tension)
1. Indentify how many harmonic layers (eg bass, piano, guitar, etc)
2. Describe the harmonic progression:
Simple/complex progression
Identify the chords used (using chord names OR I, IV, V, ii, vi, etc.)
Rate of chord change (every bar/beat/two bars?)
Simple/complex chords (added notes - 7th, 9th, aug, dim)
Reapeated chord progression
Structures: 12-bar blues
Modulations
Broken/block chords
Pitch Example
Chopin prelude in e minor
Group Name
Style
Ensemble Size
Orchestra
Rock band
Brass band
Woodwind ensemble
String Quartet
Indian ensemble
Choir
Jazz Band
Large, Med, Small
Ensemble Type
ORCHESTRAL
Strings
Woodwind
Brass
Percussion
Instrumental Groups
MUSIC OF ANOTHER CULTURE
Idiophone (hit)
Membranophone (skins, drums)
Aerophone (air)
Chordophone (strings)
CONTEMPORARY
Guitars
Percussion
Vocals
Electronic
Brass
Harmonic
Melodic
Bass
Rhythm
Instrumental Roles
Feature Instruments
Solos
Main melody
Describe the sound that is being produced
Sound Quality
Tone Colour
Mutes - brass, strings, guitars
Electronic manipulation: amps, effects, pedals
Ensemble
Groups
Instruments
Quality
How to structure a written response
Read the question and highlight main terms
Come up with a focus point
1.
2.
Reading time
Work out how you are going to structure your response
1. Look at the structure of the piece OR
2. Look at the layers
3.
P - point (relate to the focus point)
E - example (specific instrument or layer, graphic notation)
E - explain (detail: who, what, when, why?)
L - link (bring back to the focus)
example
The excerpt begins with a thin texture (P) played by a solo double bass (eg) in a very low register (ex). This melody forms a repeated melodic ostinato.
Intro
First playing: Write down your main points (4) without going into any detail
Second playing: Find an important point and begin to elaborate (PEEL/Who, What, When, Why?), find any other points of interest
Third playing: Continue to build each point with detail. Add some graphic notation
Fourth playing: Continue to build each point
Fifth playing: Check through each point to make sure they have sufficient detail (PEEL)
Answering Listening Questions
Start with the type of ensemble you are hearing (rock band, jazz quartet, orchestra, etc)
Then break this down into smaller instrumental groups (strings, brass, percurssion, guitars, etc)
List individual instruments
Note any effects (guitar pedals, mutes, etc)
Start by Listing the Instruments
Draw a quick Outline of the Structure
A
B
A1
C...

Intro
Verse 1
Chorus
Bridge...
You can use A, B, etc.
Or verse/chorus
In Each Section, jot down the distinguishing features
A - Single guitar playing repeated melody
B - Change in the melody, added bass guitar
A1 - Similar to A, with added keyboards
C - Different chord progression, change in time signature
Duration
Pitch
Structure
Tone Colour
Texture
Dynamics and Expressive Techniques
Unity and Contrast
How does the piece balance new material with repeated ideas?
Compare 2 Versions
Compare 2 different versions of the same piece
Interest
How is interest created in this piece?
Some questions may ask you about the way the concepts of music relate to one another...
Concepts of Music
Conceptual Links
Unity and Contrast
Things that stay the same (unity)
vs
Things that change (contrast)
Interest
Variations
Development
Changes
Compare and Contrast
Compare 2 different sections or pieces
Cover vs Original
Climax
Usually builds in texture
tempo increase
dynamics increase
range and register expand
Making links between 2 or more concepts
Duration
Pitch
Dynamics and expressive techniques
Tone Colour
Structure
Texture
In the Hall of the Mountain King - Grieg
Talk about how the excerpt STARTS
Describe the how TENSION is created
Transition
Describe the climax
Also Sprach Zarathustra - Strauss
Tension
Repetition (melody)
Duration - silence, pause, faster, rhythmic diminution
Harmony - building up of tension and resolving
Rubato (stealing time) creates a feeling of tension by holding back the last beat of the bar
Dynamics - louder on repeated notes
Repeated notes
Chromatic notes
Descending melody that only resolves at the end of the piece
Repeated rhythm (long short) or (dotted minim and crotchet)
Harmony - repeated quavers in block chords
Suspended chords
1. Drawing up a structure map
2. Work out main things that you can hear in each section
3. Work out unity
4. Work out contrasting elements
Structure
Intro - lower strings playing a repeated broken chord. Playing a repeated harmony - minor chord
Rhythm is short, staccato, 1-bar pattern, dotted
A - Soprano (female, high register) voice sings the melody, descending chromatic melody. 4 melodic phrases AA1AA1 - similar but the ends of the phrases change
Accompaniment playing same rhythmic pattern, but changes the harmonic progression.
Flute or high strings doubling the vocal melody

A1 - Two melodic phrases, sung by the chorus SATB, same melody as A, while the soprano sings a simple counter melody, made up of long notes, ascending in pitch
Accompaniment double the melody, leads to a thicker texture

B - Melody changes to a different melody from A, back to soloist. Changes to a wave pattern, ascending and descending. Harmonic progression changes from minor to major, but has the same relationship
The chorus have a call and response section, suddenly forte, singing a repeated melodic shape
Keep the same repeated rhythmic idea

B1
Structure
Macro
Standard Forms
Binary
"Danny Boy"

Dynamics
Medieval and Renaissance (1400-1600)
Dynamics were not a significant feature,
Constant dynamic level
Baroque (1600-1750)
dynamics change by texture (terraced dynamics)
harpsichord didn't allow much dynamic variation
Classical (1750-1820)
pianoforte (piano) allowed more dynamic variation
gradual changes in dynamics within phrases
Romantic (1820-1900)
Greater degree of dynamic contrast and variation
fff-ppp
Constant
Changes
Sudden change (subito)
Gradations (cres or descres)
Accents
loud (forte) (f)
soft (piano) (p)
moderately (mezzo) (mp or mf)
Habanera from Carmen
Concepts of Music
Melody Range Harmony Tonality
How many layers?
T
M
H
R
ange
elody
1. Identify how many melodies
2. Describe:
Phrases (musical sentences)
simple/complex
Range - how many notes
Register - low/med/high
Steps/leaps
Smooth contour/angular
3. Melodic Devices:
Repetition: ostinato, motif
Imitation (retrograde, inversion, direct)
Sequence
Single simple melody played by the piano
Starts with an anacrusis
Range of around an octave, mid register (small range)
2 long phrases with sustained notes, gradually descending in steps, chromatic at times
Dominant to tonic movement within the phrases
Repeated rhythmic pattern of long then short note (dotted minim and crotchet)
Great deal of repetition of single notes
As the melody develops becomes more complex, by increasing range and shorter note values
Melody is played expressively using rubato (push and pull time) creates a feeling of anticipation at the end of the bar (building tension)
Pitch Example
Chopin prelude in e minor
M
R
ange
elody
high/low: pitches can be comparatively high or low
indefinite pitch: non-melodic sounds, for example, the speaking voice
definite pitch: melodic sounds, for example, the singing voice
direction of pitch movement: up, down, same level
melody: a succession of pitches
M
R
ange
armony
1. Indentify how many harmonic layers (eg bass, piano, guitar, etc)
2. Describe the harmonic progression:
Simple/complex progression
Identify the chords used (using chord names OR I, IV, V, ii, vi, etc.)
Rate of chord change (every bar/beat/two bars?)
Simple/complex chords (added notes - 7th, 9th, aug, dim)
Reapeated chord progression
Structures: 12-bar blues
Modulations
Broken/block chords
H
1
2
3
armony
harmony: two or more pitches sounding together
H
onality
Diatonic (major/minor)
Blues and Pentatonic
Modal (mix of major and min)
Atonal (no tonal centre)
Chromatic
World music (raga, microtonal)
Modern scales (12 tone row, whole tone scale)
T
onality
The effect created by the observance of a particular scale pattern.
Diatonic (major/minor)
Pentatonic (5 note scale)
T
Duration
MR BT
Metre Rhythm Beat Tempo
1
2
3
Basic underlying pulse
Strong/weak

eat
B
Duple/Triple/Quad
Simple/Compound
Understand time signatures

etre
M
Rhythmic layers
Note values
Simple/Complex

hythm
R
Constant/Changing
Gradual/Sudden
Pauses/Stops
Rubato - free, expressive tempo

empo
T
Rhythmic Devices
SOAPS I CACH
Syncopation: emphasis on the weak beats
Ostinato: repeated pattern
Anacrusis: begins on an incomplete bar
Polyrhythm: a layer consisting of many simple rhythms together
Style: conventions that relate to that particular genre
Irregular divisions: triplets
Cross rhythms: pattern of 3 against 2 (nice cup of tea)
Augmentation/Diminution: proportionally lengthen or shorten a rhythm
Complex metres: metre has a combination of 2 and 3 (eg 5/8, 7/8, 11/8)
Hemiola: Pattern of 2 after 3 (America)
Duple/Triple/Quad
Simple/Compound
Regular/Changing
Mixed
Absence of metre

etre
M
Duple/Triple/Quad
Simple/Compound
Regular/Changing
Mixed
Absence of metre

etre
M
Rhythmic layers
Note values
Simple/Complex
Regular/Irregular
Rhythmic Devices

hythm
R
Rhythmic layers
Note values
Simple/Complex
Regular/Irregular
Rhythmic Devices

hythm
R
Strong/weak
Dominant/subordinate layer

eat
B
Strong/weak
Dominant/subordinate layer

eat
B
Constant/Changing
Gradual/Sudden
Pauses/Stops
Rubato - free, expressive tempo

empo
T
Constant/Changing
Gradual/Sudden
Pauses/Stops
Rubato - free, expressive tempo

empo
T
Texture
DIRT
Density Identify Role Types
1
2
3
D
ensity
Thick/Thin
Getting Thicker/Thinner
Thick then thin
Thickness can be affected by:
Number of voices per layer
Technological manipulation
Intensity of playing
D
ensity
Thick/Thin
Getting Thicker/Thinner
Thick then thin
Thickness can be affected by:
Number of voices per layer
Technological manipulation
Intensity of playing
D
dentification
Instrument (eg guitar) OR
Role (eg harmony) OR
Device (eg riff)
I
How many layers?
dentification
Instrument (eg guitar) OR
Role (eg harmony) OR
Device (eg riff)
I
How many layers?
oles
Melodic
Harmonic
Rhythmic
Bass
Sound effects
R
oles
Melodic
Harmonic
Rhythmic
Bass
Sound effects
R
Layer Relationships
Dominant or Subordinate
A vocalist accompanied by acoustic guitar
Right hand on a piano
Lead guitar and rhythm section
Upper strings and an orchestra
A congregation accompanied by an organ
Active or Inactive
Busy (many notes)
"Zadok the Priest"
lower strings bass line (crotchets),
higher strings, repeated ascending broken chord (quavers) harmonic role
melodic layer, SATB choir, brass (minims)
Layers ID and Roles
Density: Becomes thicker, adding more layers (melodic) and getting louder
Relationships
First section: upper strings dom, melodic layer then becomes more dom.
Harmonic layer was most active
Other Relationships
(D)ominant
(A)ctive
(S)ubordinate
(I)nactive

(S)olo
(U)nison:
(C)ounterpoint:
(C)all and response:

(R)hythmic unison:
(I)mitation:
(F)ills:
(P)arallel Harmonies:
(S)taggered Entry/Exit:
(S)tabs:
(S)tyle:


Solo/Unison
Solo: Delivered by a single instrument or voice
Unison: Delivered by more than one instrument or voice

Examples:
Unaccompanied piece
Violin concerto
String section playing melody
Sax solo in a jazz band
Counterpoint
Musical conversation, usually one layer is busy at a time
When layers interrupt each other creates tension - building to a climax
Music uses counterpoint/music is contrapuntal
DASI SUCC RRIFPSSS
T
ypes of Layer Relationships
Monophonic: single instrument or voice
Heterophonic: 2 or more same (with variations)
Polyphonic: More than one dominant melodic layer
Homophonic: Single melodic layer with harmonic accompaniment
Call and Response
Call by a SOLO instrument or layer
Response by a UNISON instrument or layer

Example: African vocal music
Rhythmic Unison
Despite different pitches, the rhythm of the dominant layer is the same as the subordinate or accompanying layers

Eg: four-part vocal writing
Imitation
Repetition of melodic or rhythmic ideas of one layer in another
Musical form of an echo
Often heard in rounds, cannons and other contrapuntal music
Imitation can often contain variation
Melodic fragments (motifs) can also be imitated

Fills
Breaks in dominant layer allow space to be filled by another layer
Usually happens at the end of phrases
Fills can be MELODIC, HARMONIC, RHYTHMIC or SOUND EFFECTS or combinations
Parallel Harmonies
Melodic accompaniment at a constant distance
Usually 3rds, 6ths (but can be 4ths or 5ths)
Does NOT include unison or octaves (doubling)
Adds variety and thicker texture
Staggered Entry
Gradual entry or exit
Stabs
Sudden abrupt bursts from subordinate layers
Sometimes referred to as "hits"
Could e from orchestra or band, etc.

Magic - Ben Folds Five
Discuss the use of TEXTURE in this excerpt
Intro:
Solo piano playing high melody (dominant layer)
Below this was a harmonic layer using broken chords that become more active and dominant filling the gaps between melodic phrases.
Thin density with only a solo instrument playing with homophonic texture
A:
Thicker denisty with the introduction of a solo male voice singing the dominant melodic line. Imitates and takes over this melody from the piano melody. Piano takes a more subordinate harmonic role, playing block chords, but continues to add active harmonic fills at the end of vocal phrases

A1:
Similar to above, but feeling of thicker density - instruments are playing with more force. Both layers continue, but the piano is playing a more active role that relates to the vocal melody

B:
Density continues to build with the introduction of a new layer - bass guitar playing low sustained notes. Change in melodic and harmonic parts. This sections ends with all layers ending

A2:
This section uses the same melody and harmonic progression as "A" but there are changes to the lyrics and denisty continues to build. Introduction of a rhythmic layer
Layer Relationships
Dominant or Subordinate
A vocalist accompanied by acoustic guitar
Right hand on a piano
Lead guitar and rhythm section
Upper strings and an orchestra
A congregation accompanied by an organ
Active or Inactive
Busy (many notes)
"Zadok the Priest"
lower strings bass line (crotchets),
higher strings, repeated ascending broken chord (quavers) harmonic role
melodic layer, SATB choir, brass (minims)
Layers ID and Roles
Density: Becomes thicker, adding more layers (melodic) and getting louder
Relationships
First section: upper strings dom, melodic layer then becomes more dom.
Harmonic layer was most active
Other Relationships
(D)ominant
(A)ctive
(S)ubordinate
(I)nactive

(S)olo
(U)nison:
(C)ounterpoint:
(C)all and response:

(R)hythmic unison:
(I)mitation:
(F)ills:
(P)arallel Harmonies:
(S)taggered Entry/Exit:
(S)tabs:
(S)tyle:


Solo/Unison
Solo: Delivered by a single instrument or voice
Unison: Delivered by more than one instrument or voice

Examples:
Unaccompanied piece
Violin concerto
String section playing melody
Sax solo in a jazz band
Counterpoint
Musical conversation, usually one layer is busy at a time
When layers interrupt each other creates tension - building to a climax
Music uses counterpoint/music is contrapuntal
DASI SUCC RRIFPSSS
T
ypes of Layer Relationships
Monophonic: single instrument or voice
Heterophonic: 2 or more same (with variations)
Polyphonic: More than one dominant melodic layer
Homophonic: Single melodic layer with harmonic accompaniment
Call and Response
Call by a SOLO instrument or layer
Response by a UNISON instrument or layer

Example: African vocal music
Rhythmic Unison
Despite different pitches, the rhythm of the dominant layer is the same as the subordinate or accompanying layers

Eg: four-part vocal writing
Imitation
Repetition of melodic or rhythmic ideas of one layer in another
Musical form of an echo
Often heard in rounds, cannons and other contrapuntal music
Imitation can often contain variation
Melodic fragments (motifs) can also be imitated

Fills
Breaks in dominant layer allow space to be filled by another layer
Usually happens at the end of phrases
Fills can be MELODIC, HARMONIC, RHYTHMIC or SOUND EFFECTS or combinations
Parallel Harmonies
Melodic accompaniment at a constant distance
Usually 3rds, 6ths (but can be 4ths or 5ths)
Does NOT include unison or octaves (doubling)
Adds variety and thicker texture
Staggered Entry
Gradual entry or exit
Stabs
Sudden abrupt bursts from subordinate layers
Sometimes referred to as "hits"
Could e from orchestra or band, etc.

Magic - Ben Folds Five
Discuss the use of TEXTURE in this excerpt
Intro:
Solo piano playing high melody (dominant layer)
Below this was a harmonic layer using broken chords that become more active and dominant filling the gaps between melodic phrases.
Thin density with only a solo instrument playing with homophonic texture
A:
Thicker denisty with the introduction of a solo male voice singing the dominant melodic line. Imitates and takes over this melody from the piano melody. Piano takes a more subordinate harmonic role, playing block chords, but continues to add active harmonic fills at the end of vocal phrases

A1:
Similar to above, but feeling of thicker density - instruments are playing with more force. Both layers continue, but the piano is playing a more active role that relates to the vocal melody

B:
Density continues to build with the introduction of a new layer - bass guitar playing low sustained notes. Change in melodic and harmonic parts. This sections ends with all layers ending

A2:
This section uses the same melody and harmonic progression as "A" but there are changes to the lyrics and denisty continues to build. Introduction of a rhythmic layer
Tone Colour
1
2
3
Identify the instruments and their sound
M&Ms: Macro Micro
phrases (usually 4 bars in length)
motifs
repetitive patterns (eg riffs, ostinati, ground bass)
techniques of call and response/question and answer

Micro
1: Year 7 & 8
2: Year 9 & 10
3: Year 11 & 12

Dynamics &
Expressive Techniques
1
2
3
Changes in the melody and sometimes harmony
Listen for repeated sections
Always start with the A section and listen for a totally new idea for the B section
Describe what changes between sections (eg: B section introduces a new melody in a higher register and wider range of notes)
A section:
made up of 4 melodic phrases, each four bars long - balanced phrases
A, B, A, C
A section: begins with a single female voice in a high register, singing with a narrow range of notes in an ascending and descending contour (arch) mostly in steps with a few small leaps. Thin texture (monophonic)
B section: Change in the melody
B section:
4 x 4 bar balanced phrases
A, A, B, C
Danny Boy (binary structure AB)
Rhythmic Devices
Ostinato: repeated rhythmic patterns
Syncopation: emphasizing the weak beats in a bar
Polyrhythms: many simple rhythms layered over each other
Triplets: 3 notes played in the time of two
Classification
Role
ensemble
Sound
Character/colour
Through-Composed
"Bohemian Rhapsody" by Queen
Rondo (round)
Mozart Horn Concerto
Theme and Variations
Mozart Clarinet in A
Chorus or Strophic Form
Verse/Chorus
Ternary Form
ABCD etc.
ABACA - "A" the main theme
Theme, V1, V2, V3, etc.
Jazz or Blues
Repeated chord progression (like 2-bar blues)
ABA
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