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Biology and Neuroscience
Transcript of Biology and Neuroscience
Neuroscience = study of physiological aspects of psychology and behavior
Neurology = study of disorders
Cognitive Neurology = study of the effects of NS disorders on cognition
Smallest unit of our brain
1 hundred billion!!!
The Structure of the Brain
1,000 trillion connections among synapses in a single human brain
Left Brain vs. Right Brain
Broca - 1861: halted, laborious, tip of the tongue
Weirnicke -language comprehension
Phineas Gage - 1848
H.M. - 1953, seizures led to the removal of his hippocampus. The result? Amnesia. What do we learn about the hippocampus?
Hemispherectomy & children - easier for children to still lead normal lives.
Neurons in the brain change their connections when they receive new information or stimulation.
NEW NERVE CELLS CONTINUALLY GROW THROUGHOUT ONE'S LIFESPAN!!!
Central Core: Dr. MacLean's Triune Theory
Reptilian - brain stem & cerebellum
balance, body temperature, breathing, & heart
Limbic - hippocampus, amygdala, & hypothalamus
emotion and memory
planning, decision making, language, thought, consciousness
Most protected (6 layers!)
Limbic System - above brain stem
learning & memory
eating, drinking, sleeping, body temp., chemical balance, heart rate, hormones, sex drive, & emotion
CT - 3D
fMRI - function
PET - biochemical
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
“Between stimulus and response there is a space. In that space is our power to choose our response. In our response lies our growth and our freedom.”
—Viktor E. Frankl
- 10% of our brain theory
Neurologist - Oliver Sacks: Has a genetic neurological disorder that prohibits him from recognizing familiar faces.
Neurons send electrical & chemical signals
"A selection of some of the millions of individual stars visible in Messier 101 with Hubble's sharp vision. In total it is estimated that the Pinwheel galaxy contains about one trillion stars."
Cerebral cortex - upper part of the brain.
Controls everything from perception to memory
body's motor movement
planning and coordinating
coordination in motor learning
Coordinate information between motor and sensory areas
perform higher order analysis and integration of information
Seems to mediate functions that are measured by some IQ tests
Temporal area of the lobes
auditory & visual
Useful: traumatic brain injury
They are brief, relatively inexpensive, and widely available