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The Muscular System

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Edward Catherina

on 8 August 2016

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Transcript of The Muscular System

Pushing off their starting blocks – depends on the peak performance of many of the 700 or so skeletal muscles in the body.

Contractions of muscles are responsible for the movements – whether powerful or delicate – of the axial and appendicular skeletons.

Life could not exist without the function of the muscular system.

We would be unable to sit, stand, walk, speak, or grasp objects.

Blood wouldn’t circulate, lungs wouldn’t fill with air.

Food wouldn’t travel through the digestive system, without the contractions of muscles.
Muscle Tissue – its function
Produce movement of the Skeleton.
Skeletal muscles contract, pull on tendons thereby move the bones.
Maintain posture and body position.
Continuous muscle contractions maintain body posture.
Support soft tissues.
The abdominal wall and the floor of the pelvic cavity consist of layers of skeletal muscle which support the weight of visceral organs.
Guard entrances and exits.
Skeletal muscles encircle openings in the digestive and urinary tracts.
Maintain body temperature.
Muscle contractions require energy, and whenever energy is used in the body, some of it is converted to heat.
Functions of Skeletal Muscle

Epimysium: Surrounding the entire muscle is this layer of collagen fibers which function in separating the muscle from surrounding tissues and organs.

Perimysium: These connective tissue fibers divide the skeletal muscle into bundles of muscle fibers called fascicles. The connective tissue of the perimysium also contain blood vessels and nerve fibers.


Endomysium: Within a fascicle this connective tissue surrounds each skeletal muscle fiber and ties each adjacent muscle fiber together.
Gross Anatomy
The connective tissue of the epimysium and perimysium provide a passageway for the blood vessels and nerves that are necessary for the functioning of muscle fibers.

Energy is required as are ions for muscle contractions. Glucose and oxygen must be brought to the muscle fibers as well as calcium, sodium and potassium.

Skeletal muscles contract only under stimulation from the central nervous system. Axons penetrate the epimysium, branch through the perimysium, and enter the endomysium to control individual muscle fibers.
Blood Vessels and Nerves
The Sarcolemma

Transverse tubules

Myofibrils

The Sarcoplasmic Reticulum

Sarcomeres

Thin and Thick filaments

Sliding filaments and Cross-Bridges
The Organization of Skeletal Muscles

Transverse Tubules: (AKA-T tubules): are scattered openings across the surface of the sarcolemma.
T tubules are filled with extracellular fluid and form passageways through the muscle fiber. They play a major role in coordinating the contraction of a muscle fiber.
Myofibrils: Cylindrical structures, bundles of thick and thin myofilaments consisting primarily of the proteins actin and myosin.

These myofibrils are surrounded by T tubules.

Actin molecules are found in thin filaments.

Myosin molecules are found in thick filaments.

Myofibrils are responsible for muscle fiber contraction. Because they are attached to the sarcolemma at each end of the cell, their contraction shortens the entire cell.

Scattered among the myofibrils are numerous mitochondria and granules of glycogen, a source of glucose. These structures facilitate the breakdown of glucose to produce ATP
Myofibrils
Sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR): is a specialized form of smooth ER.

The sarcoplasmic reticulum forms a tubular network around each myofibril.

Terminal ends of the SR form a cisternae which juxtaposes a T tubule. On the other side of the T tubule is another terminal cisternae. This arrangement is known as the TRIAD.

The terminal cisternae contain high concentrations of calcium ions. The concentration of calcium ions in the cytoplasm of all cells is kept low. Calcium ions are pumped across the cell membrane into the extracellular fluid. Skeletal muscle actively transport calcium ions into the terminal cisternae to be released into the sarcoplasm, which in turn initiates a contraction.
The Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
Motor unit is considered to be all the muscle fibers controlled by a single motor neuron.

The size of the motor unit indicates just how precise the control of movement is. Fewer fibers per motor unit, more controlled the muscle movement will be.

Eye movement requires motor units of about two or three fibers per.

Large muscles of the leg, in comparison, will have 2,000 fibers per motor unit.
Motor Unit
Resting muscle
Tendon
Insertion
Origin
Immovable bone
Flexion
Buccinator m.
Zygomaticus m.
Orbicularis oris m.
Orbicularis oculi m.
Temporalis m.
Frontalis m.
Sternocleidomastoid m.
Masseter m.
I
Iliosoas m.
Gluteus medius
Adductor muscles
H
Iliosoas muscles
A
Fibularis muscles
C
Knee
Posteriorly
Calcaneal (Achilles)
Gluteus medius
Tendons attaching at the anterior wrist are involved in wrist and finger flexion.

Malcolm will lose his ability to make a fist and grasp a baseball.
The hamstrings can be strained (pulled) when the hip is flexed and the knee is vigorously extended at the same time.
The rectus abdominis is a narrow, medially pulled muscle that does not extend completely across the iliac region.

If the incision is made as described above, the rectus abdominis was not cut.
Trapezius
Latissimus dorsi
The latissimus dorsi and the trapezius muscles, which together cover most of the superficial surface of the back, are receiving most of the massage therapist’s attention.
The chances are good that the child has Duchenne muscular dystrophy. This condition is fatal when it impairs the muscles of respiration.

In diagnosing DMD, family history and physical examination goes a long way towards determination. The use of genetic profiling also is warranted. Early on the doctor should order a special blood test, CK level, which detects the elevated presence of creatine kinase, an enzyme that leaks out of damaged muscle tissue. Muscle biopsy is then usually ordered as to many tests from this can determine the difference between MD and other inflammatory muscle conditions.
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common form of muscular dystrophy in children. In the absence of newborn screening, DMD is usually diagnosed when a child is 3 to 6 years of age. Early signs include delay in walking, frequent falling, and difficulty getting up from a sitting or lying position. Muscle deterioration continues to progress and, around the time they are 12 years of age, children with DMD become unable to walk.
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe recessive X-linked form of muscular dystrophy characterized by rapid progression of muscle degeneration, eventually leading to loss of ambulation and death. This affliction affects one in 3500 males, making it the most prevalent of muscular dystrophies. In general, only males are afflicted, though females can be carriers. The disorder is caused by a mutation in the gene DMD, located in humans on the X chromosome. The DMD gene codes for the protein dystrophin, an important structural component within muscle tissue. Dystrophin provides structural stability to the dystroglycan complex (DGC), located on the cell membrane.
Symptoms usually appear in male children before age 6 and may be visible in early infancy. Progressive proximal muscle weakness of the legs and pelvis associated with a loss of muscle mass is observed first. Eventually this weakness spreads to the arms, neck, and other areas. Early signs may include pseudohypertrophy (enlargement of calf muscles), low endurance, and difficulties in standing unaided or inability to ascend staircases. As the condition progresses, muscle tissue experiences wasting and is eventually replaced by fat and fibrotic tissue (fibrosis). By age 10, braces may be required to aide in walking but most patients are wheelchair dependent by age 12. Later symptoms may include abnormal bone development that lead to skeletal deformities, including curvature of the spine. Due to progressive deterioration of muscle, loss of movement occurs eventually leading to paralysis. Intellectual impairment may or may not be present but if present, does not progressively worsen as the child ages. The average life expectancy for patients afflicted with DMD varies from early teens to age mid 30s. There have been reports of DMD patients surviving past the age of 40 and even 50.
Back Muscles
And
Exercises
The pesticide is a chemical that inhibits the enzyme that destroys acetylcholine. Acetylcholine remains in the synapse and stimulates muscle activity.
The mechanism of action of acetylcholinesterase
Cholinergic nerve transmission is terminated by the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AchE). AchE is found both on the post-synaptic membrane of cholinergic synapses and in other tissues eg red blood cells. Acetylcholine (Ach) binds to AchE and is hydrolysed to acetate and choline. This inactivates the Ach and the nerve impulse is halted. AchE inhibitors (eg rivastigmine) prevent the hydrolysis of Ach, which increases the concentration of Ach in the synaptic cleft; AchE inhibitors are widely used in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease.
MUSCLE TISSUE
Skeletal Muscle
Anatomy
Three layers of connective tissue are part of each muscle: epimysium, the perimysium, and the endomysium.
Sarcolemma and Transverse Tubules
The Development of Skeletal Muscle Fibers
The Sarcolemma: (AKA-Cell membrane): of a muscle fiber surrounds the cytoplasm.
A muscle fiber contraction occurs through the orderly interaction of both electrical and chemical events.Electrical impulses conducted by the sarcolemma trigger the contraction by altering the chemical environment everywhere inside the muscle fiber.
The Sliding Filament Theory
AND
Muscle Contraction
The Muscular System
AND
THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM
Muscle tissue, one of the four primary types of tissue,
is comprised of three types:
Cardiac muscle
Smooth muscle
and
Skeletal muscle
We will primarily deal with the structure and function
of skeletal muscle tissue
This section will deal primarily with skeletal muscle tissue, its structure and its function
Objective: Specify the functions of skeletal muscle tissue
The Sliding Filament Theory
Epicranial aponeurosis
Temporalis
Occipital belly of
occipitofrontalis
Masseter
Buccinator
Trapezius
Sternocleidomastoid
Temporoparietalis
Orbicularis
oculi
Procerus
Nasalis
Levator labii
superioris
Zygomaticus
minor
major
Orbicularis oris
Mentalis
Depressor labii inferioris
Platysma
Omohyoid
Depressor anguli oris
Epicranial
aponeurosis
Temporoparietalis
Orbicularis oculi
Levator labii
superioris
Masseter
Buccinator
Mentalis
Sternocleidomastoid
Trapezius
Frontal belly of
occipitofrontalis
Temporalis (deep)
Corrugator supercilii
Procerus
Nasalis
Orbicularis oris
Risorius
Zygomaticus
minor
major
Depressor labii inferioris
Depressor anguli oris
Platysma
Skeletal muscle fibers are
quite different than the "typical" cell
in two major ways; cell size, and the characteristic of being
multinucleate. Being multinucleate allows for rapid metibolic turnover.
embryonic muscle
myoblasts
myotubes
satellite cell
nuclei
immature
muscle fiber
mature
muscle fiber
satellite cell
nuclei
striations
muscle fiber
myofibrils
mitochondria
sarcolemma
blood vessels
epimysium
fascia
compact bone
periosteum
(covering tissue of bone)
tendon
endomysium
(between muscle fibers)
perimysium
muscle fascicle
(wrapped by perimysium)
muscle fiber (cell)
A. Cardiac / B. Smooth
A. Cardiac / C. Skeletal
B. Smooth
C. Skeletal
A. Cardiac
A. Cardiac
C. Skeletal
C. Skeletal
C.Skeletal
A. Smooth muscle
B. Cardiac muscle
G. Perimysium
B. Epimysium
I. Sarcomere
D. Fiber
A. Endomysium
H. Sarcolemma
F. Myofibril
E. Myofilament
K. Tendon
C. Fascicle
Actin
Light band
Z disc
Myosin
Dark band
Sarcomere
A band
I band
I band
(light band)
Contracting muscle
Movable bone
mitochodria
sarcolemma
myofibril
thin filament
thick filament
triad
sarcoplasmic
reticulum
T tubules
myofibrils
terminal
cisterna
sarcolemma
sarcoplasm
sarcomere
myofibril
Z disc
actin and titin
filaments
I band
thick
filaments
M line
myosin filaments
H zone
(band)
Zone of
overlap
thin filaments
Synaptic vesicles
Mitochondrion
Motor unit
Axon terminals
Synaptic cleft
Acetylcholine
Nerve impulse (action potential)
Depolarization
Sarcomere
T tubule
ACh receptors
Synaptic cleft
4
7
2
5
3
6
F. Outside the cell
E. Inside the cell
C. Na diffuses into cell
B. K diffuses out of cell
H. Electrical conditions
G.
I.
G. or tetanus
B. Isotonic contraction
I. Many motor units
H. Few motor units
A. fatigue
E. Isometric contraction
Extrinsic Eye Muscles
Superior oblique - Trochlear nerve (CNIV) - Eye looks down and to side
Medial rectus - Oculomotor nerve (CNIII) - Eye looks medially
Superior rectus - Oculomotor nerve (CNIII) - Eye looks up
Lateral rectus - Abducens nerve (CNVI) - Eye looks to side
Inferior oblique - Oculomotor nerve (CNIII) - Eye looks up and to side
Inferior rectus - Oculomotor nerve (CNIII) - Eye looks down
Muscle Innervation Action
Muscles of Mastication
Muscle Innervation Action
Masseter - Trigeninal nerve (CNV) Closes jaw
mandibular branch
Temporalis - Trigeminal nerve (CNV) Elevates mandible
mandibular branch
Pterygoids - Trigeminal nerve (CNV) med. - closes jaw
(med. / lat.) mandibular branch lat. - opens jaw
As is the Skeletal System divided into axial and appendicular divisions, so is the Muscular System:
The axial musculature

- arises on the axial skeleton, it positions the head, neck, and spinal column, and also moves the rib cage.
The appendicular musculature

- stabalizes or moves components of the appendicular skeleton.
In presenting the muscles of both divisions, we will review the names, innervation (distibution of nerves to the muscle), and action.
The Axial
Musculature
SUPERFICIAL
DEEP
Trapezius
Deltoid
Infraspinatus
Teres minor
Teres major
Serratus
anterior
Levator scapulae
Rhomboid minor
Rhomboid major
Triceps
brachii
SUPERFICIAL
DEEP
Trapezius
Subclavius
Pectoralis major
(cut and reflected)
Pectoralis
minor
Internal
intercostals
External
intercostals
Serratus
anterior
Biceps
brachii
Coracobrachialis
Pectoralis
minor (cut)
Levator
scapulae
Superficial
Deep
Pectoralis
major
Deltoid
Subscapularis
Coracobrachialis
Teres major
Biceps brachii
short head
Biceps brachii
long head
Muscles That Position
the
Pectoral Girdle
Superficial
Deep
Triceps brachii
lateral head
Triceps brachii
long head
Teres major
Teres minor
Infraspinatus
Supraspinatus
Latissimus
dorsi
Deltoid
Supraspinatus
Platysma
Deltoid
Pectoralis
major
Serratus
anterior
Rectus abdominis
External oblique
Sternocleidomastoid
Trapezius
Pectoralis minor
Subscapularis
Coracobrachialis
Biceps brachii
Teres major
External intercostal
Internal intercostal
Internal oblique
Transversus abdominis
Sternocleidomastoid
Trapezius
Infraspinatus
Deltoid
Teres minor
Teres major
Triceps brachii
Latissimus dorsi
Erector spinae muscle group
Lumbodorsal fascia
External oblique
Gluteus medius
Gluteus maximus
Semispinalis capitis
Splenius capitis
Levator scapulae
Rhomboid minor
Suprspinatus
Serratus posterior (superior)
Rhomboid major
Infraspinatus
Teres major
Serratus anterior
Latissimus dorsi
Serratus posterior (inferior)
External oblique
Internal oblique
Latissimus dorsi
(cut and reflected)
SUPERFICIAL
DEEP
DEEP
SUPERFICIAL
Your rate of respiration (breathing) is much faster and you breathe more deeply.
B. Anaerobic glycolysis
C. Aerobic respiration
A. Coupled reaction of
CP and ADP
A. and B.
C. Aerobic respiration
C. Aerobic respiration
C. Aerobic respiration
B. Anerobic glycolysis
A. Coupled reaction of
CP and ADP
Plantar flexion
Dorsiflexion
Circumduction
Adduction
Extension
Extension
Flexed
Flexion
Rotation
Circumduction
Rotation
Pronation
Abduction
C. Prime mover
B. Fixator
D. Synergist
D. Synergist
A. Antagonist
B. Fixator
E, G
A, G
D, E
E, F
A, C, E
B
E, F
E, F
I
A
D
B
E
C
G
F
Sternocleidomastoid
Masseter
Buccinator
Zygomaticus
Orbicularis oris
Orbicularis oculi
Frontalis
Temporalis
Sternocleidomastoid
Deltoid
Pectoralis major
Rectus abdominis
External oblique
H
A
D
J
F
K
C
B
Transversus
abdominis
Internal oblique
Diaphragm
Trapezius
Deltoid
Latissimus dorsi
F
E
A
B
E
Erector spinae
B
External
intercostal
iliopsoas
Sartorius
Quadriceps
Rectus femoris
Vastus medialis
Vastus lateralis
Fibularis
muscles
Tibialis anterior
Gluteus medius
Gluteus maximus
Adductor
muscles
Hamstrings
Semitendinosus
Biceps femoris
Semimembranosus
Gastrocnemius
Soleus
H
E
D
O
A
I
G
F
C
K
N
Flexor carpi ulnaris
Extensor
digitorum
Triceps brachii
Biceps
brachii
Deltoid
E
D
F
A
G
B
Deltoid
Gluteus maximus
Quadriceps
Proximal
Forearm
Anterior
Flex
4
5
17
16
7
6
19
14
18
12
11
10
21
1
2
3
15
20
13
9
8
endomysium
motor unit
neuromuscular
acetylcholine
sodium
action potential
calcium
actin
myosin
calcium
2
1
5
9
7
4
12
3
8
10
11
6
Quickening
Muscular dystrophy
Proximal-distal
cephalocaudal
gross
fine
exercised
atrophy
Myasthenia gravis
weight
size and mass
Connective (scar)
By reducing the size of the abdomen, the abdominal contents are forced into a smaller space which would increase the intra-abdominal pressure. The rise in intra-abdominal pressure would, in turn, force the vertabrae to move farther apart, reducing the vertebral compression and pressure on the nerve fibers that transmit pain!

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