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Hydrosphere

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Cassie Grether

on 18 April 2016

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Transcript of Hydrosphere

Hydrosphere
- groundwater
- surface water
- oceans
- cryosphere
- water cycle
- water budget

The year is 2035 and the jet stream has changed. Utah seems to be surrounded by an area of high pressure. What's happened is ocean moisture that normally comes in to us from California is flowing north to Idaho.

Moisture that used to come up from the south from the Gulf of California is veering off and heading towards Texas. As a result Utah has gotten dryer over the past decade. There isn't enough water to go around.

Come up with creative ideas on how to help reduce the water crisis.
Where does our water come from?
Hydrosphere
welcome to the ...
Fresh Water
Life giving water
Water Properties
II. Water Management
Oceans
Oceans are NOT a freshwater source.

What does that mean?
Lake Bonneville = freshwater lake
Great Salt Lake (ehhh... not so much)

Salinty of 50-270 ppt which is 5 - 27% salts

Why the range in percents? Can the scientist just not agree on how many ppt?
II. Physical Properties of the Ocean Water
How much of our planet is covered by ocean?

How much of the world's water is in the ocean?
The ocean is salty?
So is the Great Salt Lake.
So, where did the oceans come from?
Sea levels on the rise

Two basic causes:
1. melting ice
2. tectonic forces that change the shape of the ocean floor
Current causes: melting ice
Major Oceans
3.5 bya the oceans provided the Earth with functionally all of its oxygen. Cynobacteria pumped oxygen into the atmosphere.
28% of oxygen comes from rain forests
70% comes from the oceans (around 50% comes from the oceans mostly from tiny organisms collectively called phytoplankton.
Oxygen levels are pretty stable on our planet. Current life on our planet is well adapted to these levels. If levels were to increase in a short amount of time our bodies would probably react poorly.

Did you know that oxygen is a highly flammable gas? What do you think would be some consequences to having more oxygen around?

-
Density –
salt makes sea water more dense than
- Freezing Point
– salts make the freezing point of water lower (-2 degrees C or 28.4 degrees F) What is the normal freezing point of freshwater?
(why do they add salt to the roads in winter?)
- Absorption of light
Properties of ocean water
- ocean salinity increases with depth
- ocean temperature decreases with depth
- ocean oxygen levels decrease with depth
- nutrients increase with depth
- light decreases with depth
Why?
Ocean water
Lets work on a density experiment.
Now lets ad some pollution
Lake Bonneville was a freshwater lake.
The Great Salt Lake is the remnant of that lake and it is anywhere from brackish to saline.
Salt exchange
The ocean is saline.
Why?
Salt in the water comes from multiple sources. Salts are not just table salt, but are of many different ions.
Major ions in sea water:
sodium
chlorides
sulfates
magnesium
potassium
calcium
The Salt Exchange
Processes that decrease salt from the oceans
biological process (marine organisms build shells, teeth, bone etc)
formation of evaporates
formation of sediment and limestones
sea spray
rain water/freshwater input
Why does the salt average stay around 35 ppt? Why doesn’t it just keep going up?
volcanic eruptions
weathering and erosion of rocks
evaporation for cloud formation
Processes that increase salt to the oceans
Freshwater in short supply
desalination: process that removes salt from sea water in order to provide freshwater.
techniques:
heating water and collecting vapor
freezing water and removing brine
reverse osmosis using semipermeable membranes
problems: pricey
Water Reservoirs
THE
But that doesn't mean we have all that much.

97% of all of Earth's water is held in the oceans
That leaves just 3% for all other water reservoirs on the planet!
0.0082% is in lakes, swamps and rivers
1.7% is in groundwater
1.7% is in the Glaciers & icecaps (cryosphere)
0.001 % is in the atmosphere
Of that 3%
World's Water Supply
Water Resources
What did you have for dinner last night?
How much water was used to prepare that dinner?
71% of the surface Earth is covered by water
The biosphere holds a tremendous amount of water.

You are about 65% water
+
Managing Freshwater Resources
Thought experiment
Think about what your group's ideas were.
Countries manage freshwater supplies by:
building dams
transporting surface water
tapping groundwater
desalination (what was this again?)
How Things Work: Water
Pollution
Pollution: a substance that can harm the well-being of living things or adversely affect their activities.
Pollution
There is a limited supply of freshwater and in arid climates like Arizona, the Sahara and many parts of the world. Clean freshwater is a major concern.

Keeping the limited resources we have clean
and usable to drink is very important.
Pollution
Water can become polluted naturally by runoff, precipitation from polluted air, and from volcanic activity. Humans also can affect pollution of waterways.

Some supplies of water that have been polluted by human activity are no longer usable.
A. Water contamination (continued)
How do you think pollution on the surface can affect aquifers?

LAB – Midnight Dumping
Pollution of groundwater
The
Water Cycle
What is a cycle?
A. The Water Cycle
The Water Cycle
The water cycle is responsible for replenishing the freshwater on our planet land dwellers need to survive.
Different modes of transfer or different ways the water moves through the cycle.
LP's: Can you name any?
The Water Cycle
Movement of Water in the Water Cycle
B. Movement of Water in the Cycle (continued)
h. Transpiration
B. Movement of Water in the Cycle (continued)
B. Movement of Water in the Cycle (continued)
a. Evaporation: the process of becoming a vapor or gas from the liquid phase; puts moisture in the atmosphere using heat energy.
b. Condensation: water that collects as droplets on a cold surface when humid air is in contact with it.

c. Precipitation: rain, snow, sleet, or hail that falls to the ground
f. groundwater flow: traveling of water down through materials in the ground water

Construct your own
The Water Cycle Cartoon
In the word hydrosphere, what does the greek prefix hydro mean?
On this diagram label:
aquifer, artesian well, & precipitation
What is the name of the term we use to describe the movement of water through the soils and pore space in rocks?
What is the water table?
name 2 types of aquifers
What type of valleys do streams and rivers create?
Name three resources we use in Utah for Freshwater.
What is the zone underground that is moist, but the pore spaces are mostly filled with air.
What is a watershed?
fen, bog, swamp, mangrove are all examples of what?
Why are the oceans salty?
What is the name of the phytosynthetic organism that first helped to put oxygen into our atmosphere?
Why are sea birds affected during an oil spill more than fish?
Name one process that removes salt from the ocean AND one process that puts salt into the oceans.
Organisms in the ocean produce how much of our atmospheric oxygen?
What is the average salinity of the oceans?
Name one erosional feature of a glacier and one depositional feature of a glacier
Name one type of equipment scientists use to collect data from the oceans.
True or False: the north pole is a giant glacier.
The amount of water vapor in the air is referred to as what?
What percent of the Earth's water is stored in the ocean?
What forms can water exist in the atmosphere?
Where does the energy come from for the water cycle?
What property of water allows substances on the soil to be carried to groundwater sources?
What is the process that removes salt from water?
How does the water from the ocean reach Utah?
Draw one mode of transfer of the water cycle up on the board and name it.
Draw a different mode of transport on the board and label it.
Draw yet another mode of transport on the water cycle and label it.
Define residency time.
Water Cycle
1. Fueled by energy from the sun; gravity brings it down.
(or evapotranspiration)
the passage of gases through fine tubes because of differences in pressure or temperature
Sketch a picture of this in your notes to help you remember.

B. Movement of Water in the Cycle (continued)
B. Movement of Water in the Cycle (continued)
d. Runoff: the draining away of water (or substances carried in it) from the surface of an area of land
e. Infiltration: water that soaks into the soils and seeps into the gravel and groundwater in the ground.

B. Movement of Water in the Cycle (continued)
C. Reservoirs of water on Earth (the holding tanks)
1. Oceans
2. Rivers and lakes
3. Groundwater
4. Atmospheric moisture
5. Glaciers (cryosphere)
6. Biosphere

Earth's Water Resources Assignment
What is the cryosphere again?
D. How much water is there?
1. relative amounts graphed:
Of the 100% of all the world's water...
less than 1% is usable for us.
Utah and Our Water
Where does most of it come from?
Water enters the atmosphere by a process called ______________.
Winds carry moisture to Utah from the ocean. A bit of moisture also gets into the air from the Great Salt Lake.
In the winter most moisture comes from the Pacific.
In the summer most moisture comes from the Gulf of California.
Spring and summer runoff in springs and rivers rely heavily on snow melt.
Annual Averages of Precipitation
Utah receives less than 9 inches of rain per year on average.
How does water get to you?
Because we get so little water in Utah, we rely heavily on groundwater.
So that water out of the tap that you:
drink
bathe in
wash your dishes in
flush down your toilet
Yup! That's mostly groundwater.
Melting snow in the spring and summer help to recharge the water in the aquifers.
When it doesn't snow much...
there isn't much to use during the hottest months of the year.
Sixty-six percent of the water we use comes from aquifers and natural springs.
Before water reaches your tap, it is treated for contaminants both chemical and biological.
Aquifer Demo
1. biological contamination: water contains dangerous biological contaminants (ex. E.Coli, hepatitis, other viruses, parasites)
II. Water purification
A. Water contamination
2. toxic water (chemical contamination): water is contaminated with toxic chemicals
B. Water purification:
removing undesirable chemicals, biological contaminants, suspended solids and gases from contaminated water
1. How does water get purified naturally?
a) As water infiltrates the soil, the soil is a natural absorber of water and contaminants
b) Plants and microorganisms take up chemicals, minerals and can even break down chemical and biological contaminants.
c) Wetlands play an essential role in filtering and purifying water sources through plants.

26 minutes
Liquidity: The Value of Wetlands
d) As water percolates deeper into the ground it is slowly striped of chemicals and microorganisms as it reaches the aquifer
e) If an area becomes too saturated with contaminants, they will enter the aquifer and contaminate the water source.
Midnight
Dumping
Group
Activity
2. How does water get purified at a sewage treatment plant? (mimicking nature)
a) Screening
1) screen filters out large particles in the water

b) Sedimentation
1) Water is put into a tank to allow it to be still.“Sludge (aka clay, particulates, poop, etc.) settles out of the water and is removed.

c) Sand & rock filters
1) Physically filter out contaminants as water flows over the sand & rocks; sometimes carbon is added to help further the filtration process and improve water taste

d) Biological purification
1) microorganisms (mainly bacteria) digest the sewage (YUM!)

e) Chemical treatment
1) Removes ions by adding chemicals to the water to form precipitates and replacing some ions with harmless ions; negative: can leave some chemicals in the water

f) Disinfection

2) Ozone disinfection
a) readily reacts with many biological agents; positive: leaves no chemicals in the water

There are four basic types of disinfection used by sewage treatment plants to kill of biological agents like tuberculosis, Hepatitis A, E. Coli, and other harmful contaminants.
1) Water chlorination
a) Added to the water to kill biological agents; negative: can be toxic at high levels
3) Ultraviolet disinfection
a) Radiates living organisms; positive: leaves no harmful chemicals behind

4) Boiling
a) Kills living organisms
Water Quality Indicators (What shows good water quality in an ecosystem?)
Water will have a pH around neutral (7.0), water is clear, includes minerals and nutrients, with a good dissolved oxygen content. Absent or extremely low are heavy metals, fecal bacteria, and salinity.
Waterborne Diseases
Hepatitis A
What is it?
symptoms: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, yellow skin, fever, and abdominal pain
Acute liver failure is rare but can occur.
Virus that causes disease of the liver
How do you get it?

It is usually spread by eating or drinking food or water contaminated with infected feces.

Shellfish which have not been sufficiently cooked is a relatively common source.
Tuberculosis
What is it?
Tuberculosis is a bacteria that can infect people through the water and the air.
Left untreated it kills more than 50% of people.
Typical symptoms are related to problems in the lungs like: chronic cough with blood-tinged sputum, fever, night sweats, and weight loss. However, symptoms may vary depending on which organ is being attacked.
In the United States and other developed countries, children are vaccinated to prevent disease and death.
Tuberculosis
History & other countries
In the 1800s, 25% of all deaths in Europe was caused by TB.
In 2010 there were an estimated 8.8 million new cases of TB worldwide.
Polio
1950s
development of vaccines
What is it?
A virus that can spread through fecal matter that attacks the central nervous system sometimes resulting in asymmetrical paralysis and deformation.
painting by Andrew Wyeth
Christina's World
Vaccines were thought to be well on their way to irradiating the virus, but new cases popped up in Syria in 2013.
A. Three states - water exists in all three states at normal Earth temperatures.
1.
Solid
: as ice
2.
Liquid
: as water
3.
Gas
: water vapor in the air
B. Water is aUniversal Solvent
2. polar property pulls chemical bonds apart and allows substance to be dissolved as ions in solution.
C. Exhibits adhesion
1. Water can stick to other substances

D. Cohesion
1. water can stick to itself

E. Solid Ice Floats!
1. Ice, unlike most substances, becomes less dense as a solid.
2. Because ice is less dense an water it floats.
So...??? Who cares if ice floats?
What difference does this make?
3. Because ice floats the aquatic life is safe from winter's cold air under a layer of ice insulating.
Let's test it out!
1. Universal solvent
Water vs. Oil
2. Adhesion (sticks to other substances)
capillary action
3. Cohesion (sticks to itself)
penny drops
1. What is a river and tributaries
a. River:
a large natural stream of water flowing in a channel to the sea, a lake, or another such stream.
b. Tributary:
all of the rivers and streams that merge into one main river
2. Watersheds/Water Basins & Drainage Systems
a)

San Juan River
b) Green River
c) Colorado River


3. Local Drainage for Utah
B. Water Quality & Water Rights
1. How we move water around the state?
a) Water that we use comes from rivers, streams, lakes, and groundwater.

b) We divert rivers by creating aqueducts and pipelines that move the water where we need it to go
(1) aqueduct: an artificial channel for transporting water


c) We also create storage of water for times of drought by building dams
(1) dam: is a barrier that impounds water for the purpose of retaining water

2. Agreements to share
a) Why can’t we just stop all of the water before it leave the state and keep it for ourselves?

(1) Water rights: everyone down stream from a river, including natural ecosystems, depend on the life- sustaining water. Everyone must share.
Protect the waterways
b) Why should we worry about runoff from the land into rivers?


(1) Water that flows down stream collects pollution from roads, farm runoff and natural pollution from the land. This can make the water unusable further down the river.

c) When water runs short (Water Conservation)
(1) What do we do?
Restrict water usage (lawns parks)
Turn off non-essential usage
As population grows, especially in So. Utah, water resources will become more and more stretched
(2) What can you do to conserve water?
Stream Water Quality
3. What factors affect stream quality?
a) Contaminants, invasive species, ecosystem out of balance all fit into two categories: biotic & abiotic.
(1) biotic: of or relating to living things
(2) abiotic: (prefix a: without) not derived from living organisms

b) Biotic factor examples:
(1) plant and animal diversity
(biodiversity helps keep everything in nature and the environment in balance; without it everything is threatened)
(2) over-fishing
(human interaction with environment)
(3) algal blooms
(over growth of algae removes oxygen)
(4) invasive species
(hunt other species to extinction because a lack of natural predictors)
(5) fecal matter
(poop)
(6) pathogens: bacterial, viral or fungi

c) abiotic factor examples:
(1) salinity
(how salty the water is)
(2) turbidity
(how muddy, and dense the water is)
(3) chemical pollution
(4) dissolved substances
(5) pH (acidic, basic, or neutral)
(6) temperature
(7) stream gradient & turbulence
(how steep & rocky the stream is)
(8) drought

4. Dams
a) Dams create more than just storage of water.
4. dams (continued)
Dams have many community, economical, and agricultural benefits!
b) Benefits of building dams
1. store water & distribute it when we need it
2. flood control
3. recreation (boating, hiking, fishing, camping)
4. hydroelectric power
5. improved irrigation to farmlands

c) Negative aspects of dams
1. collects & concentrates pollution
2. blocks sediment and nutrients from reaching the river system
3. reduces diversity down stream
4. prevents some species from spawning
5. diverts water and reduces river length
6. creates desert conditions down stream
7. harms ecosystems
8. changes natural temperature of river water

Dam Debate
Can you name the 5 oceans?
If phytoplankton are giving us oxygen, what kind of organisms are they? How are they getting their food?
When the Earth was just forming, it was a ball of hardening rock. It was very hot, an there were NO oceans.
I. Ocean Origins
A. Where did the oceans come from?
1.
Outgasing by volcanoes
(a) water vapor erupted with lava and eventually condensed into clouds that rained for a long time.
A. Where did the oceans come from? (continued)
2. Comets plummeting to Earth
(a) Comets (aka dirty snowballs) brought nearly the water to Earth through collisions.

WHY?
As water runs over the land it picks up salts. Since all rivers run to the ocean, they bring with them all of the salt.

When the water evaporates, the salts stay behind.
Voila!
Salty oceans!
II. Physical properties of ocean water
A. Density
1. least dense waters at surface near equator (warm water less dense); as you go deeper in ocean, density increases;




B. Light and life
1. Water absorbs light;
It is dark past 300 feet (100 m)
Most of all oxygen and life in the ocean lives in this light (photic) zone;

II. Physical properties of ocean water
C. Temperature
1. As you get deeper into the ocean, it gets colder

II. Physical properties of ocean water
D. Salinity
1. When water becomes more salty it becomes more dense. When ocean water freezes, salt leaves the ice and concentrates sinking to the bottom of the ocean.
Interpreting Graphs - Activity
Now let's test it!
Density Tanks!
E. Dissolved oxygen in the oceans
1.
most all oxygen in the oceans exists in the upper 700 feet
WHY?
Photosynthesis, ocean interaction with the atmosphere & ocean currents
Nutrients
1. as you get deeper nutrients increase; this is because nutrients sink to the bottom of the ocean;
upwelling
near continents brings nutrients from the deep to the surface due to ocean currents;
UPWELLING = abundant ocean life

Lets see if we can't get upwelling to happen in our density tanks.
III. Physical Dynamics of the Oceans and Energy Flow
A. Deep ocean
circulation
1.
Deep ocean
currents move
water around
the oceans due
to temperature
and density
differences;

B. Wave action
1. Ocean waves only affect the surface currents and are caused by WINDS.

2. Wave moves faster than the water molecule.
You'll need:
salt
cold water
warm water
ice cube
3:25 Garbage Patch
C. Surface Currents
Garbage Patch
1. Caused by winds and deflected by the Coriolis effect.
This deflection moves them a circular ocean current called ocean
gyres
.
Wave Machine
Nike Shoe Wash Up
Assignment
2.
D. Tides
1. Tides are caused by the gravitational pull from the sun and moon on the oceans; The gravity pulls the water into a bulge toward the force;
Most places on Earth have two high tides and two low tides every day.

The Moon's gravity pulls on the water more than the Sun's gravity. Why?
The closer you are to an object, no matter how massive, the stronger the gravitational force will be.
Sun: very massive
Distance: 93 million miles away!
Moon: not so massive
Distance: 234,000 miles away
2. Neap tide
Neap tide is a weak tide;
Sun and moon are perpendicular to one another causing pulls in opposite directions.
"neap tide/ weak tide"
3. Spring tide (NOTHING TO DO WITH THE SEASONS)
Spring tide is a strong tide when sun, Earth and moon are all aligned. Gravitational forces are magnified.
How often does high tide and low tide happen?
How often do spring tide conditions occur?

How often do neap tide conditions occur?
E. Land and sea breezes
F. El Niño
Warm ocean temperatures in Southern Pacific change wind patterns in the Southern Hemisphere causing temporary change in climate (ie. floods, droughts, decrease in hurricanes)
Reminder from last unit
IV. Human Activities on the Ocean
A. Pollution
1. Garbage patch
2. Dead zones
3. Oil spills
1. Garbage patch
Garbage, mostly plastic stuck in gyres
.
80% is caused by garbage from land
other is by commercial sources
Why it is dangerous:
animals mistake it for food
can tangle and choke animals
blocks sunlight for algae/ phytoplankton
can leach toxic chemicals into water/animals
The Clean Up
Because the garbage patches of the world are so dispersed and far away from any countries' coastline, no one will take responsibility for the financial clean up.
Some international orgs are working on prevention.
2. Dead zone
Dead zones are areas where runoff pollution into oceans has caused an area where no life can live; biggest cause: fertilizers
Starts with an algal bloom and ends with water devoid of oxygen (hypoxia).
The Mississippi Dead Zone aka Gulf of Mexico Dead Zone
Dead Zones World Wide
2nd largest in the world!
The Black Sea dead zone was the largest, but as fertilizers became too expensive, it is slowly recovering.
3. Oil Spills
Fossil fuels spill into the ocean and waterways causing toxic water conditions to birds and sea creatures.
Affects mammals, birds, reptiles more than fish.
Why?
It's that darn density thing again!
Oil is less dense so it floats.
As time goes on, people forget about oil spills. They forget the devastating effects, and stop noticing the effects that are still ongoing decades after a spill.
And then another one happens...
But it doesn't really become "real" until you see it first hand.
7:25
More oil spills happen in the Gulf of Mexico than anywhere else in the world!
How can we prevent these accidents?
Regulations on oil companies
Best way: Use alternative energy sources,
vote for the scientific exploration of alternative energy sources, and try to conserve.
Fine oil companies
B. Over fishing
The act of depleting fish species from the oceans, and in the process, altering the food chain in a negative way.
What can you do about it?
Pay attention to the seafood watch guide:
Eat more farmed fish
The key is sustainability.
If most of our OXYGEN comes from the ocean, what happens when we mess with that dynamic?
Let's pretend you don't eat any fish, no clams, shrimp or other seafood, why does any of this matter to you?
g. sublimation: the process of ice or snow turning directly into a gas.
7:23 minutes
10 minutes runtime
1. ability to dissolve many substances.
WHY?
WHY?
WHY?
Land heats and cools faster than water. When land is warm cool breezes come in from sea. When sea is warm at night, land breeze moves out to the ocean.
Jan 2015, clean up efforts just starting
Deep Horizon oil spill (aka bp oil spill)
2010 Largest oil spill ever

2014 exposed fish were found to have developed deformities of the heart and other organs. These deformities are considered to be life shortening or fatal.
It was found by a court that the accident which killed 11 workers that were never found occurred because of the direct “...gross negligence and reckless conduct” of bp.
BP oil spill largest marine accidental spill ever
April 2010
Oil flowed for 87 days before being capped
Louisiana, 4.6 million pounds of oily material was removed from the beaches in 2013
Infant dolphins were reported to be dying 6 times the normal rate three years after the spill
But it is over now, so what are the consequences? Why do we still care?
http://www.seafoodwatch.org/-/m/sfw/pdf/guides/mba-seafoodwatch-central-guide.pdf?la=en
How does any of this affect you?
2. Freshwater amounts
Water Purification
Group
Activity
Watershed is an area where all water moves toward a central location.
Water (river) basin are areas of land that are drained by a series of rivers. Ex: Rocky Colorado River Basin
Wear "dirty" clothes
Never run the tap when not needed
Use drought resistant lawns and plants
Take short showers
Wash your car at a car wash
F. Nutrients
1. Nutrients organisms need are concentrated at the bottom of the ocean.
Why?
What process brings nutrients up from the deep?
Baltic Sea Dead Zone
Full transcript