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Bombing and Ecocide in Vietnam
Transcript of Bombing and Ecocide in Vietnam
Jordan Abrams, Zackary Kwasnik, Joshua Breeden, Hunter Rickenbacker and Keil Parker
The US Campaign in Vietnam was hindered by the North Vietnamese "Tunnel Warfare." By housing their military in underground tunnels, the North Vietnamese army were protected, able to go to and from battle swiftly. In 1965, the US had already been at war for 6 years, and with no end in sight. President Lyndon B. Johnson was among the first to promote a new strategy for fighting the Vietnamese.
The Bombing of Vietnam
What is Ecocide?
The Ecocide Strategy
The Effects of Ecocide
These chemicals also destroyed bird and animal life in the jungles; even today, most species that live in the jungles have not fully recovered.
3% of the country was covered in Agent Orange by the time the ecocide campaign was halted.
That's approximately 3841.98 miles.
Also, Napalm and Agent Orange produced ghastly effects on the Vietnamese people, including:third degree burns, excruciating pain, and the majority of the time, death.
Other Unintended Effects
*Caution: Explicit Pictures*
Picture and Video Sources
Operation "Rolling Thunder" consisted of an Unyielding bombing campaign of North Vietnam.
The purpose of the campaign to incapacitate the North Vietnamese transportation routes.
"From 1965 to 1968, about 643,000 tons of bombs were dropped on North Vietnam." (history)
Bombing also provided immediate support to troops at battle.
"...U.S. bombing during the Rolling Thunder campaign of the late 1960s “destroyed 65percent of the North's oil storage capacity, 59 percent of its power plants, 55 percent of its major bridges (Clodfelter 1995: 134)" (Berkeley)
Almost 4 million civilians were killed during the Vietnam War.
Bombs destroyed all industrial, housing, and educational structures, which wrought poverty on the surviving population.
Ecocide: e·co·cide Noun
Heedless or deliberate destruction of the natural environment, as by pollutants or an act of war
In 1941, an anonymous Chicago botanist became the first person to investigate the use of chemical herbicides as a weapon.
Chemical herbicides, particularly Agent Orange and napalm, were used for the purpose of deteriorating teh dense forests of Vietnam so that American Forces could locate the North Vietnamese army, and also to deprive the army of food.
The military strategy for covering Vietnam with Agent Orange was called Operation Ranch Hand.
Between 1959 and 1975, more than 20,000,000 gallons of Agent orange were dumped on the jungles of Vietnam
The US aimed to dump as much Agent Orange in Vietnam as possible, in order to make the North Vietnamese army more vulnerable.
War Veterans and the children of war veterans are susceptible to: Autism, ADHD, Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease and numerous other mental disorders.
Children are also experiencing severe deformations of the body, primarily in the legs, arms and head areas.
"History.com." N.p., n.d. Web.
"Bombing As a Policy Tool In Vietnam: Effectiveness." Bombing As a Policy Tool In Vietnam: Effectiveness. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 June 2013.
Mattson, Ed. "The children of veterans are the innocent victims of agent orange." Veterans Today. N.p., 11 Nov. 2011. Web. 24 June 2013. <http://http://www.veteranstoday.com/2011/11/11/the-children-of-veterans-are-the-innocent-victims-of-agent-orange/ >.
Austin, Michael. "Agent Orange: an ongoing Atrocity." Anti-War.com. N.p., Oct 23, 2004. Web. 24 June 2013. <http://http://www.antiwar.com/orig/austin.php?articleid=3838>.
"Ecocide." The Free Dictionary. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 June 2013. <http://http://www.thefreedictionary.com/ecocide>.
"Vietnam War Statistics." Statistic Brain. N.p., 27 Mar. 2013. Web. 24 June 2013. <http://http://www.statisticbrain.com/vietnam-war-statistics/>.
Miguel, Edward, and Gerard Roland. "the Long Run Impact of Bombing Vietnam." (2005): 1-52. **Database or Web publisher**. Web. 24 June 2013.