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Copy of Acknowledging Piaget and Vygosky's Developmental Theory

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Richard Wong

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Transcript of Copy of Acknowledging Piaget and Vygosky's Developmental Theory

Acknowledging Jean Piaget
Stages
Lev Vygotsky
Thank you
And his Developmental Theory
Sensori-motor
(Birth-2 yrs)
Differentiates self from objects

Recognises self as agent of action and begins to act intentionally: e.g. pulls a string to set mobile in motion or shakes a rattle to make a noise

Achieves object permanence: realises that things continue to exist even when no longer present to the sense (pace Bishop Berkeley)
Pre-operational
(2-7 years)
Learns to use language and to represent objects by images and words
Thinking is still egocentric: has difficulty taking the viewpoint of others

Classifies objects by a single feature: e.g. groups together all the red blocks regardless of shape or all the square blocks regardless of colour
Concrete operational
(7-11 years)
Can think logically about objects and events

Achieves conservation of number (age 6), mass (age 7), and weight (age 9)

Classifies objects according to several features and can order them in series along a single dimension such as size.
Can think logically about abstract propositions and test hypotheses systemtically

Becomes concerned with the hypothetical, the future, and ideological problems
Formal operational
(11 years and up)
Assimilation
Accommodation
Adaptation =
vs
Operation
Schema
Equilibration
Zone of Proximal Development(ZPD)
"stretching" learners
"cannot yet do"
"can do with help"
"can do alone"
1896-1934
Cultural mediation and internalization
Psychology of play
Thought and Language
Natural or Learning

Loss of Cultural and Societal Issues

Self-Centred Approach and Morality

A 'Scientific' Approach?
Scaffolding
Biography
History
Theory
The developmental process
Schemas
The physical microstructure of “schemes”
Research methods
Influence
Challenges
List of works
1896, born in Switzerland
educated at the University of Neuchâtel and University of Zürich. His interest in psychoanalysis and psychology was developed in this period.

moved from Switzerland to Paris, France after his graduation and he taught at the Grange-Aux-Belles Street School for Boys, with Alfred Binet.
1923, married Valentine Châtenay, they have three children, whom Piaget studied since infancy.

1929, Jean Piaget accepted the post of Director of the International Bureau of Education until 1968

1964, served as chief consultant at two conferences at Cornell University (March 11–13) and University of California, Berkeley (March 16–18)

1979, awarded the Balzan Prize for Social and Political Sciences.
First Piaget: The Sociological Model of Development
Piaget first developed as a psychologist in the 1920s.

Piaget proposed that children moved from a position of egocentrism to sociocentrism.

semiclinical interview: by asking children standardized questions and depending on how they answered, he would ask them a series of nonstandard questions.

Piaget was looking for what he called “spontaneous conviction” so he often asked questions the children neither expected nor anticipated.

In his studies, he noticed there was a gradual progression from intuitive to scientific and socially acceptable responses.

Piaget theorized children did this because of the social interaction and the challenge to younger children’s ideas by the ideas of those children who were more advanced.
Second Piaget: The Sensorimotor/Adaptive Model of Intellectual Development
In this stage, Piaget described intelligence as having two closely interrelated parts.The first part, which is from the first stage, was the content of children's thinking. The second part was the process of intellectual activity.

Adaptation = assimilation + accommodation.

Assimilation: Piaget observed the habits in his own children. He argued infants were engaging in an act of assimilation when they sucked on everything in their reach. He claimed infants transform all objects into an object to be sucked. They were assimilating the objects to conform to their own mental structures.

Accomodation: Piaget also observed his children not only assimilating objects to fit their needs, but also modifying some of their mental structures to meet the demands of the environment.
Third Piaget: The Elaboration of the Logical Model of Intellectual Development
Fourth Piaget: The Study of Figurative thought
In the model Piaget developed in stage three, he argued the idea that intelligence develops in a series of stages that are related to age and are progressive because one stage must be accomplished before the next can occur.

For each stage of development the child forms a view of reality for that age period. At the next stage, the child must keep up with earlier level of mental abilities to reconstruct concepts.

It is primarily the Third Piaget that was incorporated into American psychology when Piaget's ideas were "rediscovered" in the 1960s.
Piaget studied areas of intelligence like perception and memory that aren’t entirely logical.

Piaget uses pictures as examples. Pictures can’t be separated because contours cannot be separated from the forms they outline.

Memory is the same way. It is never completely reversible.

During this last period of work, Piaget and his colleague Inhelder also published books on perception, memory, and other figurative processes such as learning during this last period.
The child performs an action which has an effect on or organizes objects, and the child is able to note the characteristics of the action and its effects.

"reflecting abstraction": Through repeated actions, perhaps with variations or in different contexts or on different kinds of objects, the child is able to differentiate and integrate its elements and effects.

At the same time, the child is able to identify the properties of objects by the way different kinds of action affect them. This is the process of "empirical abstraction".

By repeating this process across a wide range of objects and actions, the child establishes a new level of knowledge and insight. This is the process of forming a new "cognitive stage". This dual process allows the child to construct new ways of dealing with objects and new knowledge about objects themselves.

However, once the child has constructed these new kinds of knowledge, he or she starts to use them to create still more complex objects and to carry out still more complex actions. As a result, the child starts to recognize still more complex patterns and to construct still more complex objects. Thus a new stage begins, which will only be completed when all the child's activity and experience have been re-organized on this still higher level.
the mental framework that is created as children interact with their physical and social environments. 

For example, many 3-year-olds insist that the sun is alive because it comes up in the morning and goes down at night.

According to Piaget, these children are operating based on a simple cognitive schema that things that move are alive.

At any age, children rely on their current cognitive structures to understand the world around them.
Behavioural schemata: organized patterns of behaviour that are used to represent and respond to objects and experiences.

Symbolic schemata: internal mental symbols (such as images or verbal codes) that one uses to represent aspects of experience.

Operational schemata: internal mental activity that one performs on objects of thought.
naturalistic observation, psychometrics, and the psychiatric clinical examination
The Language and Thought of the Child: synthesize the methods he was using in order to study the conclusion children drew from situations and how they arrived to such conclusion.
psychoanalytic method initially developed by Sigmund Freud.
Developmental psychology
Education and Morality
Historical studies of thought and cognition
Evolution
Philosophy
Primatology
Artificial Intelligence (AI)


Biology and Knowledge (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1971) [Biologie et connaissance ; essai sur les relations entre les régulations organiques et les processus cognitifs (1967)].
Science of education and the psychology of the child (New York : Orion Press, 1970) [Psychologie et pédagogie (1969)].
The child's conception of physical causality (London: Kegan Paul, 1930) [La causalite physique chez l'enfant (1927)].
Intellectual evolution from adolescence to adulthood (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1977) [L'evolution intellectuelle entre l'adolescence et l'age adulte (1970)].
Six psychological studies (New York: Random House, 1967) [Six études de psychologie (1964)].
The Equilibration of Cognitive Structures: The Central Problem of Intellectual Development (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985) [L'equilibration des structures cognitives (1975), previously translated as The development of thought: Equilibration of cognitive structures (1977)].
Child's Conception of Geometry (New York, Basic Books, 1960) [La Géométrie spontanée de l'enfant (1948)].
Development and learning.
To understand is to invent: The future of education (New York: Grossman Publishers, 1973) [tr. of Ou va l'education (1971) and Le droit a l'education dans le monde actuel (1948)].
Massimo Piattelli-Palmarini (ed.), Language and learning: the debate between Jean Piaget and Noam Chomsky (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1980) [Theories du language, theories de l'apprentissage (1979)].
The Principles of Genetic Epistemology (New York: Basic Books, 1972) [L'épistémologie génétique (1950)].
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