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Governments of Southern & Eastern Asia

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Jodi Alexander

on 6 March 2012

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Transcript of Governments of Southern & Eastern Asia

Governments of Southern & Eastern Asia
When a government is designed and set-up, it has to be decided how the power is going to be distributed. Is the central government going to maintain all the power? Will the states or provinces have governments that share in the power? Or, will the regional governments have more power than the central government? These three government systems are known as: Unitary, Confederate, and Federal.
Government Systems:
Unitary: The central government has the power. They share little to no power with any regional governments.
Examples: China and Japan
Confederate: A voluntary association of independent states or provinces that, to secure a common purpose, agree to certain limitations or freedom of actions, and establish some joint machinery of consultation or deliberation
Federal: A form of government where the power is divided or shared between the central government and regional authorities.
· Examples: India and Malaysia
It is important to remember that most governments do not fit neatly into one of these categories, and may have aspects of more than one government system.
When governments are created, they have to determine how and to what extent they will allow their citizens to participate in that government system? Will they be allowed to vote and choose their government representatives? Will they have very little say in how the government is ran at all? These three types of citizen participation are all about the role of the citizen and are known as: Autocratic, Oligarchic, and Democratic.
Citizen Participation:
Autocratic: If one person possesses unlimited power, the citizens has little if any role in their government.
· Example: North Korea
Oligarchic: Government by the few, sometimes a government in which a small group exercises control especially for corrupt or selfish purposes. The citizens role is very limited.
·Example: Myanmar
Democratic: A government in which the supreme power is vested in the people and is exercised by them directly or indirectly through a system of representation usually involving periodically held free elections. The people are given the power to choose leaders and laws.
· Example: Japan
There are two main types of democracy that are seen around the world. One of these is a parliamentary system and the other is a presidential system… and there are some differences between these two.
Parliamentary: The real executive power is vested in a cabinet composed of members
of the legislature who are responsible to the legislature. There may also be a prime
minister who is elected by the legislature and is a member of the legislature. Citizens
would vote for the legislature in a parliamentary system and the legislature choose
the cabinet and prime minister.
Presidential: In this type of democracy, the president is constitutionally independent of the legislature (he or she is NOT a member). The legislature is chosen by a direct vote of the people and the president is chosen by a direct vote of the people.
What’s the difference between the head of state and head of government?
The head of state (or chief of state) is a leader who represents the country at official and ceremonial functions and may not actually be involved with the day-to-day activities of the government
The head of government is the name and title of the top administrative leader who manages the day-to-day activities of the government
The Republic of India
Individual states are tightly controlled by the central government, but the states do have some responsibilities
India has a president & a prime minister
President is the head of state (this is primarily a ceremonial role) & is elected by the people to a 5 year term
The Prime Minister is the head of government & is chosen from the Parliament
All citizens 18 and over have suffrage

The People’s Republic of China
The true power lies with the ruling political party, which is the Communist Party
The government of China is subordinate to the communist party and the role of the government is to implement party policies
China has a President & a Premier
The President is the head of state
The Premier is the head of government.
The President is elected by the National People’s Congress
While there are elections for the National People’s Congress, there is truly only one political party, the Chinese Communist Party
The General Secretary is the head of the ruling party, the Chinese Communist Party
The Constitutional Monarchy of Japan
The Emperor of Japan is the head of state (ceremonial role) and is seen as a symbol of Japan
The true executive power lies with the Prime Minister, who is the head of government
Japan's strong central government is based in the capital of Tokyo. The prefectures (their version of states) have very little power.
There is a Cabinet of Ministers who are a part of the legislative branch of government
All adult citizens, 20 and over, have suffrage
SS7CG6a: Describe the ways governments distribute power: unitary, confederate, federal
SS7CG6b: Explain how governments determine citizen participation: autocratic, oligarchic, democratic
SS7CG6c: Describe the two predominant forms of democracy: presidential & parliamentary
SS7CG7: Demonstrate an understanding of national governments in SE Asia
SS7CG7a: Compare & contrast: the federal republic of the Republic of India, the communist state of the People’s Republic of China, & the constitutional monarchy of Japan
Federal: A form of government where the power is divided or shared between the central government and regional authorities.
· Examples: India and Malaysia
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