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Chapter 6: planning in generalist practice

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Sydney Puryear

on 2 March 2015

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Transcript of Chapter 6: planning in generalist practice

Use Contracts as Part of the Planning Process:
Step 8: Formalize a Contract

The Purpose of a Contract
Identify expectations and help avoid potential misunderstandings
Used in any type of micro, mezzo, or macro practice:
Micro practice: contracts summarize specific responsibilities of client, worker, agency, and any involved others
Mezzo practice: contracts can specify individual and group goals and tasks
Macro practice: contracts can formalize any number of agreed-upon plans
Engaging in Macro Practice
Utilize an
Planning Process
in Generalist
Integrating Micro,
Mezzo, and Macro
Chapter 6: planning in generalist practice

By: Apolonia Pollock, Sydney Puryear, Jordyn Stanley, and Chelsea Fender
An approach to program planning:
Articulate the problem and translate it into the client's needs.
Marshal support for program development.
Identify a group that will take responsibility for the program. (Ex. advisory group, or board of directors)
Describe the purpose of the proposed program. (Main goal)
Formulate clear objectives. (Sub-goals)
Conduct a feasibility study to determine the need for the program.
Solicit the financial resources needed to initiate the program.
Describe how the program will provide resources.
Get the program started.
Establish how services will be effectively provided on an ongoing basis.
Work with the Client
Need to work directly with people receiving services
In Macro Practice this means working with those who help complete the intervention:
Professionals (Co-workers)
Remain open to feedback and be responsive to the needs of others in the process.
Prioritize Problems
After the problem has been identified, you proceed to develop a program.
To begin developing a program you need to have first identified the specific problems causing the major problem.
Next, you determine which problems need to be taken care of first.
After you prioritize the problems, the program will take it's shape accordingly to begin problem solving.
Translate Problems into Needs
1. Gather data and information to determine exactly what the need is.
What kinds of facts would be helpful to prove the need?
Who else is interested in the problem and the need?
Where might other interested parties make documentation available?
2. Recognize what other agencies/programs in the community are already addressing the need.

If there is already another program meeting the needs why make a new program that offers the same?
3. Talk to other professionals involved with your clients.
Find out how they perceive the problems or need for the client.
4. Talk to the community residents to see how they perceive the problems/needs.
5. Consider a formal needs assessment.
Evaluate the Levels of Intervention
This is where you choose whether to take a micro, mezzo, or macro level approach.
For the means of this section, we are focusing on the macro level.
Establish Goals and Specify Objectives and Action Steps
Formalize a Contract
Balancing Micro and Macro Practice:
A Challenge for Social Work
In order to develop a program:
Break down the large goal into easily measurable sub-goals.
Gain support for program development.
Action groups
Board of Directors
Allocate responsibilities.
Describe the purpose.
Unmet needs need to be clearly defined and documented.
Clientele receiving services must be clearly identified.
Program must be clearly articulated to ensure that everyone involved understands the structure and intentions.
Formulate clear objectives.
Establish Goals and Specify Objectives and Action Steps
Implement a feasibility study.
Are there enough resources to support the program?
Soliciting the finances to initiate the program.
Transforming the potential funds into actual funds.
Describe how the program will provide services.
How will the program work?
What specific services are being offered?
Get the program going.
Trial runs
Establish how services will be provided on an ongoing basis.
Contracts are useful in program development on a variety of levels.
They might be used to solidify agreements made in action groups or by a board of directors.
They can also be used to provide a client with services at other agencies that your specific program cannot provide.
By Jack Rothman and Terry Mizrahi
Balance of Micro and Macro policy
Historical view vs. Contemporary view
"The 2011 data identify the percentage of MSW students enrolled in specific macro areas as 8.8 percent."
Aydemir, I., & Önal Dölek, B. (2013). SOCIAL WORK PRACTICE IN FIELD OF HANDICAPPED. Journal Of Education & Sociology, 4(1), 28-33. doi:10.7813/jes.2013/4-1/5

Kirst-Ashman, K., & Hull, G. (2015). Planning in Generalist Practice. In Understanding Generalist Practice (7th ed.). Stamford, Connecticut: Cengage Learning.

Rothman, J., & Mizrahi, T. (2014). Balancing Micro and Macro Practice: A Challenge for Social Work. Social Work, 59(1), 91-93.
Establish Goals
and Objectives

Step 1: Work with Your
Step 2: Prioritize Your
Step 3: Translate Problems
Into Needs
Step 4: Evaluate Levels of Intervention
Assessing Client Strengths
Possible questions to ask
clients about their strengths:
When working with clients it is important to always involve them. Even if you think you know what is best for them, planning WITH them is critical to the success of your efforts.
If your clients do not feel included then they will not be motivated to cooperate in order to improve
: empowering clients means enhancing their right to self-determination
Step 5: Establish Goals
Helps ensure that clients and workers are in agreement
Validate client concerns of the problem and facilitate client empowerment
Suggest how both the client and worker can stay on the same course
Carefully defined goals lend themselves more easily to evaluation
Clarity the purpose of an intervention
Help a client system identify and specify what it wants to achieve within the worker and client relationship
Only focus on problems that fit into the 3 step criteria:
Client must recognize that the problem exists
The problem should be clearly defined in understandable terms
It must be realistically possible that we can do something about the problem

Micro, Mezzo, and Macro Practice Goals
Micro Practice: goals guide your work with individual clients

Mezzo Practice: intervention may require goals involving each individual member and the entire group as a whole

Macro Practice: a generalist practitioner might use goal setting to help a community or organization target what it wants to accomplish and how it will go about doing this

Target Problems:
Identify with the client the problems that are most significant to the client
Explicitly state each problem in behavioral terms
Prioritize the problem in order of importance to the client
Establish an initial agreement with the client regarding the problem you will attend to first

Step 6: Specify Objectives
Objectives are behaviorally specific regarding what is to be achieved and how success will be measured

Goals and Objectives are confusing
Goals and objectives synonymously
An objective should always be clear while goals are usually more complex
Setting Objectives in the Micro Practice
Establish specific objectives with clients

Objectives should meet at least three criteria:
They should be explicit
They should be clear
They should be complete

Three important components in a clear, well written objective are:
Performance Level
3 categories of needs:
What we depend on (food, water, shelter)
What we require in order to maintain a sense of well-being. (what makes us comfortable)
Items that we require to achieve a sense of fulfillment in life
Step 7: Specify Action Steps
• Establishing objectives requires specifying the action steps necessary in order to achieve those objectives
• The basic formula for delegating responsibility is to specify
who will do what by when
is the individual specified for accomplishing a task
involves the tasks the individual has to complete in order to achieve the goal
sets a time limit so that the task is not lost in some endless eternity

Problems, needs, and goals are interrelated. Meaning, your goal will be to satisfy the need causing the problem
• A contract is an agreement between a client and worker about what will occur in the intervention process
• A contract can be broken down into four major components:
Specifies what will occur during the intervention process
Established by a worker and client making an agreement together
Contains goals, methods, timetables, and mutual obligations
The format can be written, oral, or implied

You can develop a strategy by doing the following:
Focus on the first need you and the client have selected to work on
Review the need and consider identifying micro, mezzo, and macro alternative strategies to arrive at a solution
Emphasize your client's strengths when establishing strategies
Evaluate the pros and cons of each strategy you have considered with your client
Select and pursue the strategy that appears to be most efficient and effective
Make Contracts
Summarize what a worker and client agree to do during the intervention process
Advantages of client involvement when making contracts:
Motivate clients to work on their problems
Client empowerment is enhanced
Agreements and Responsibilities will not be forgotten
Provide a record of goals and plans
The Format of a Contract
Ways this is useful:
Strengths provide blocks upon which to build intervention plans.
Building strengths allows you to give your client positive feedback and can build confidence.
Incorporating strengths into strategies allows you to work with and think about something concrete.
The Written Contract
The Oral Contract
Implicit Contracts
Clearly and visually reflects what client, workers, and anyone involved have agreed upon
Who-will-do-what-by-when format
Clear, virtually indisputable record
Clients' signatures
Time consuming
Clients may feel uncomfortable signing the contract
Oral contracts should be kept in all clients' records with a brief summary of what was involved
Made swiftly and in an easy fashion
Makes clients feel less pressured than signing a written contract
Forgetting important details because they were not documented
What skills and talents do you feel you have?
What family members can you call for support?
What values in life are especially important to you?
What educational level have you achieved?
What work experience have you built up?
Do you have any hobbies that might or do demonstrate special ability?
What types of social services have you benefitted from? And how?
ow do you usually go about making decisions or solving your problems?
What kinds of physical activities do you enjoy?
Where does most of your income come from
• Agreements that are implied or assumed but not actually articulated
• Two major false assumptions:
• Assuming a client has agreed when they have not
• Assuming a client understands all the conditions and responsibilities when they actually do not
• Implicit contracts carry risks, so its recommended to use written or oral contracts

What to Include in Intervention Contracts
Identifying Information
Specified Objectives and Action Steps
Formats Vary
Contracts Often Change over Time

Engage in planning in Mezzo Practice
Setting Objectives in Mezzo Practice
Clarifying Goals and objectives
Input from both worker and Clients
Workers perspective
Group Members' Perspective
Variations in Goals
Categories Goals

Contracts in Mezzo Practice
Agency and group
Worker and the group
Group and group member
Worker and group member
Group member to group member
Social Work Practice in Field of Handicapped
Support Groups
Educational Groups
Interaction Groups
Socialization Groups
By: Ass. Professor Dr. İshak Aydemir, Ass. Professor Dr. Bilge Önal Dölek
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