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The Plantation of Laois-Offaly.

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Ms. Mc Caffrey

on 28 December 2016

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Transcript of The Plantation of Laois-Offaly.

Military Conquest
Recap
Define the key words
Efforts to Conquer Ireland
The Tudors
Reasons for the Tudor Conquest
A New Policy Plantations
Surrender and Regrant
The English government decided to use another policy to conquer Ireland. This was called plantation. This is how the policy worked:
Background
In the middle of the 16th century, the O' Moores and O' Connors were lords of Laois and Offaly. They raided the Pale for cattle. Queen Mary sent her Lord Deputy with an army to conquer them. After the conquest, their lands were confiscated. A plantation was then organised.
Surrender and Regrant
Since the Gaelic chiefs now held their titles under English law, each chief could pass his title and land on to his eldest son. This led to conflicts within families between those who wanted to follow the Gaelic Brehon law and those following the English law in relation to inheritance.
The Plantation of Laois-Offaly.
The Pale
Plantation
common law
Anglo Normans
Gaelic Irish Lordships
Brehon Law
Henry VII came to power in England 1485, after a long civil war called the War of the Roses. This was the beginning of the reign of the Tudor family. The Tudors continued to rule until 1603. The descendants of Henry VII - his son Henry VIII, followed by Edward VI, Mary I and Elizabeth I - took a close interest in Ireland. By 1603 when Elizabeth died, the English Crown had conquered Ireland.
Henry VIII and the later Tudor monarchs wanted to conquer Ireland for a number of reasons.
i) They wanted to protect England. They did not want other countries such as France and Spain using Ireland as a base from which to attack England.
ii) The Tudors also wanted to introduce the religious changes in England into Ireland.
iii) They thought the English culture was superior to Irish Gaelic culture.
Henry VIII came into conflict with the Fitzgeralds Kildare who were the most powerful lords in Ireland. He wanted to reduce their power and independence and he put the Earl of Kildare in jail. This led the earl's son, Silken Thomas, to rebel. However, Henry's army defeated the Fitzgeralds.
Henry's use of the army was very successful, but it was also very expensive. Families could rise up again in later years, so military conquest had its weaknesses.
Because using the army was very costly, Henry tried another policy: surrender and regrant.
Gaelic and Anglo-Irish lords were encouraged to surrender their lands to the king.
They then swore loyalty to the king and promised to use only English law, language and customs.
In return for this, Henry regranted the land back to the lords.He also gave new English titles to the Gaelic lords.
Brehon Law
English Common Law
The chief was elected from the derbhfine.
The land was owned by the clan or tribe.
The new lord was the eldest son.

The land was owned by the lord.
After rebellious chiefs or lords were defeated, their lands would be confiscated (taken over).
The land would be given to loyal settlers, or 'planters'.
The planters would use English law, language and customs.
The planters would defend their new land.
This new policy was first tried in Laois Offaly.
The aims of the plantation were:
To impose English law on the planted areas
To protect the Pale
To control the native Irish population
The Plantation in Action
The land was divided into shires, or countries -
Queen's County (Laois) and King's County (Offaly) - each under the control of a sheriff.
The towns of Maryborough (Portlaoise) became the county towns.
Houses and a courthouse were to be built, and markets and fairs organised.
Two-thirds of the land was put aside for English planters, while the other one third, near the Shannon, was reserved for the loyal Gaelic Irish.
The land was divided into estates of 360 acres.
The estates were distributed to 'Englishmen born in England or Ireland'.
They had to use English law, language and customs.
They had to build English-style houses and be prepared to defend themselves.
The Results of the Plantation
The plantation of Laois Offaly was a failure.

i) The plantation failed to attract enough planters; just over eighty planters were granted land, and this number was too small.
ii) No planters came from England, so Gaelic planters had to be given land.
iii) The confiscated lands were attacked by the O' Mores and O' Connors.

However, the English government learned lessons in this plantation that could be applied in later plantations.
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