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6 World War One

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on 29 November 2017

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Transcript of 6 World War One

World War One
70 million soldiers used
37 million people killed or wounded
How did this happen?
Central Powers
Triple Entente
Military Deaths
Empires contested each other across globe
Empires raced to have biggest military
Major alliances could draw many countries to war
These factors created a Powder-Keg ready to explode into war
The Triple Entente
Great Britain, France & Russia
The Central Powers
Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy*
Italy will join Triple Entente
Southeast Europe
Many wanted to be independent but
Russia and A-H were imperializing
Franz Ferdinand – Future Heir of Austria-Hungary Assassinated
Killer: Serbian nationalist Gavrilo Princip
The Balkans
Franz assassinated
A-H asks Germany to Support War on Serbia
GER. Says ‘ok’
Serbia asks for support from Russia
Russia says ‘ok’
A-H Attacks Serbia
Russia mobilizes German border
Germany Declares war on Russia
Germany Declares war on France
Germany Marches through Belgium
UK Declares war on Germany
Powder Keg Go Boom!
Germany & A-H fight Russians
Russia loses 2 million in one year
Russia attacks Turkish oil – Ottoman Turks join Central Powers
Eastern Front
Germany Fights France and the UK
Western Front
New technology changed the face of warfare
Trench warfare
Machine guns
Long Range Artillery
Chemical weapons
Aerial Warfare
$$ War Developments $$
Trench Warfare
Life in Trenches
Revolutionized Warfare
Killed thousands of infantry at a time
Often numbers were used to overcome machine guns
With extremely high casualties
Machine Guns
Shelled trenches from 6 miles away
Later shower poison gas
Long Range Artillery
Tear Gas - First used by France
Chlorine Gas – formed acid in the lungs
Mustard Gas – burned severely
Chemical Weapons
Mustard Gas
Burned and blistered skin, made eyes sore and could blind – destroyed mucus track, caused choking. Pain incredible, soldiers strapped to hospital bed
Blinded by teargas
British Troops
Gas Masks
Tanks used to break the stalemates in trench warfare
The plan worked
Tank Warfare
Planes were for the first time used to:
Attacking ground troops
Aerial Warfare
Rumpler Taube – German for “Dove”
1st Mass Produced military aircraft
The Famous Red Baron WWI Fighter Plane
United States Enters the War
Many Germans sided with Germany
Many Irish hated Great Britain and sided with the Central Powers
Most did not want to lose friends and sons or
Go into debt to pay for the war
War = less freedom
Did not want to mess with European politics
Most Americans Against the War
Military contractors and Banks make millions of dollars from war
Banks heavily invested in France and England
England and France paying for war with US Bank loans
If they lost they cannot pay banks back
President Wilson very close to bankers
Signed the Federal Reserve Act of 1913
Who Wanted War?
the spreading of ideas, information, or rumor for the purpose of helping or injuring an institution, a cause, or a person
US Committee on Public Information spread Propaganda
Made Germans seem like murdering rapists and baby killers
Talked about saving Europe from tyranny and giving democracy
Gave 7.5 million targeted speeches
(Wilson also pushed for ‘democracy’)
Exaggerated newspaper stories (yellow journalism)
Said German raped through Belgium and butchered babies
Film reels shown at theaters
Getting Americans to Want War
Battle for the North Sea
Between England and Germany
German U-Boats (Submarines) sinking merchant ships (ships selling supplies to Great Britain)
Many merchant ships American
Countering U-Boats
Convoys: many destroyer ships protect cargo ships
Depth charges: bombs dropped underwater
Hydrophone: listening device
Battle for the North Sea
England blockades Germany
Cuts of supplies into Germany
Starved 400,000-800,000 Germans to death
Battle for the North Sea
Germany not allowed to attack passenger ships
US and Great Britain hide ammunition on passenger ships
1915 - Lusitania had 1198 passengers (128 American)
Germans sent warnings to passengers not to board
U-Boat Sinks Lusitania
US uses sinking as a reason to go to war
Sinking of the Lusitania
1917 US about to enter war
Germans start attacking all US merchant ships
Send Zimmerman Telegram encouraging Mexico to declare war on US
US Declares War
US Enters War
Henry Stimson – Republican From New York
Rich – Yale Grad - Skull & Bones Secret Society
In charge of militarization of America
Transitions American industry to war industry
Manages the draft of over 2.8 million soldiers
2 more million volunteer
Conscientious Objectors (don’t fight) are imprisoned or forced to work
350,000 dodge the draft
Draft considered a violation of the right to life and liberty
Selective Service Act
Supreme Court and Congress take away freedom of speech
Espionage Act
Speaking out against the war, government or the draft would lead to jail sentences
Eugene Debs sentenced to 10 years and never again allowed to vote after a speech encouraging people to resist the draft
Runs for president from jail
Freedom of Speech Gone
Taking millions out of the labor force hurts economy
Women step into working roles
African Americans from south move to north to fill lost factory jobs
Freedom of Consumption and Sales Gone
Rationing – limiting food purchases
Government set limits on how much food you could buy and on what days
People began dealing black market illegal food like criminals
Fed inflates dollar 50% to pay for beginning of war
Russian communists overthrow the Russian Monarchy and create the United Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR)
Said the war was another Imperialist land grab and shared secret talks by the Triple Entente on plans to take over German/Turkish/Austro-Hungarian empires
**They did - Especially in the Middle East**
Russian Revolution 1917
The people of Germany revolt, create a new republic and surrender
England refuses to stop the blockade and starvation until Germany signs the treaty
Austro-Hungarian and Turkish Empires broken apart and made into French-English colonies
Europe changes borders and new countries are created (Poland, Czechoslovakia, Iraq etc.)
Treaty of Versailles
Germany will hyper inflate trying to pay off the ½ trillion dollars
Economy will collapse - Depression
A hero… (Hitler) emerges and brings hope
Hitler will move to reclaim former German lands with German people
Setting the Scene for WWII
Wilson wants a world government League of Nations to help settle disputes before they turn to world war
US Congress refuses to join
Will not give up right to rule America to world government
Woodrow Wilson’s League of Nations
US Marine Corp
Most decorated Marine at time of death
2 Medals of Honor
Marine Brevet Award + 15 other major medals
The Philippines
Boxer Rebellion
Banana Wars
Word War One
Smedley Butler’s ‘War is a Racket’
Delivered speeches on his experience
Said war is a racket (secret criminal activity)
He was used to protect businesses and banks
Calls out military contractors for profits
Predicts World War II
War is a Racket!
Senator Gerald Nye led an investigation on the US Munitions Industry (Military contractors)
Determined the military contractors and banks tricked the American people into war using President Wilson
Wilson withheld information from congress
The banks loaned Germany $27 million and Great Britain $2.3 billion
“The committee listened daily to men striving to defend acts which found them nothing more than international racketeers, bent upon gaining profit through a game of arming the world to fight itself.”
The Nye Committee
Who Profited?
Not new but taken to a new level
Treaty of Versailles
The Triple Entente demanded Germany:
Pay reparations - payments for damages
½ $Trillion Dollars
Must surrender all military equipment, ships and trains
Restrictions on size of army and navy
Surrender many lands with native Germans to other countries

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