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The French Revolution

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Olivia Sabol

on 17 December 2012

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Transcript of The French Revolution

This is a picture of the french Revolution Flag, The blue and red represent Paris and they are separated by white. The French Revolution France During The Old Regime France Under The Old Regime Epilogue During the Old Regime there was an absolute monarch who believe in divine right. This meant that he got his power from God. This was believed by most absolute monarchs of this time period. The absolute monarch of France was Louis XIV. Society was divided into three different groups. They were the First, Second, and Third Esates. The First estate was made up of clergymen. The Second Estate was made up of nobility. The Third Estate was made up of everyone else. The First and Second Estates were less than three percent of the population. The First and Second Esatate has many privileges that the Third Estate did not. For example, The First and Second Estates had to pay very minimal amounts of taxes and they were the only ones who could hold positions of authority in the government and military. Prologue A revolution is an overthrow or repudiation and the thorough replacement of an established government or political system by the people governed. The French Revolution was influenced by the Enlightenment ideas and the American Revolution. They proved that locke's ideas were true and should be followed. The American's success gave hope to the french to fight for their freedom as well. Life during the old regime in France was unfair. The First and Second Estate had many privileges that the Third Estate did not. France had a bad economy because their government money was not being put to good use. Louis XVI was spending money on costly wars and Marie Antionette spent money on lavish dresses and lifestyle. Louis XIV is killed for treason charges and this causes struggle over government power and the rise and fall of Napoleon. I am a peasant, and therefore am in the Third Estate. Life is very unfair for us. The First and Second Estate have privileges that we do not. The First and Second Estate barely pay any taxes, meanwhile they are living lavishly and luxuriously. I and the rest of the people of the Third Estate have to pay many taxes to the government and to the church, and we are barely making enough money to support our families. I am very unhappy about this. The bad harvest is also making it hard to support my family. King Louis is spending way too much money of wars that we are losing and on Queen Marie Antoinette's expensive taste. Our countries money needs to be put to better use. The States General is also not fair. We, the people of the Third Estate Only get one third of the votes, but we occupy half. The First and Second Estate always get their choice because together they get more votes. I am a very unhappy peasant and think our country is in need of radical change.
Sincerely,
A peasent from the Third Estate. The Congress of Vienna was the end to the French Revolution. After all the power switches wars, and debt The Congress of Vienna finally restored the stability to Europe. Diplomats met. They balanced the power in Europe so that no one country dominated another country. The main countries in this congress were Austria, Britain, Prussia, and Russia. They protected the monarchy and didn't want any more revolutionary ideas to spread. They redrew the map of Europe, surrounding France with strong, powerful countries. Switzerland was neutral land. They took the land Napoleon conquered, away from France. Louis XVIII was put back on the throne. The four countries involved in the Congress of Vienna formed an alliance, called the Quadruple Alliance. When France joined the alliance they changed their name to the Quintuple Alliance. They influence Europe for the next one hundred years, till World War One.
The French Revolution was successful in some peoples eyes and a failure in others. it came with lots of struggle for power and death. The government change a lot. It started and Absolute monarch. Then a republic, Then ruled by an emperor. Lastly, the government ended this time period as a monarchy. This monarchy had limited power. Some people would say this time period was successful because there were changes in government and new laws were made to better France. Many people thought the revolution was a failure because it started and ended with a monarch. Although in the beginning France had a absolute monarch and ended with a limited monarch. Dear Journal, This is a picture of me farming after the bad harvest so i can support my family. This is a picture of a guillotine. It was a symbol of the French Revolution because of all the death that occurred using the guillotine. The Estate General The Estate General meet in Mar 1789. It was the first time in over one hundred seventy-five years. They were believed to be the last option. The people of France needed to figure out what to do to help France. Members of each estate made up the Estate General. There were three hundred from the First Estate, three hundred from the Second Estate, and Six Hundred from the Third Estate. Each estate got one vote. The Third Estate did not like this system of voting because they made up half of the Estate General but only one one-third of the votes. The Third Estate almost never got what they wanted because the First and Second Estate would be on the same side and therefore, they would win the vote. This is one of the things that led to the National Assembly. This is a picture showing the three different estates. This is a picture of the Estate general Meeting. People are voting over an issue in the government The National Assembly The Third Estate was very upset by how unfair the Estate General was. They broke away and formed the National Assembly. Some First and Second Estate members joined too. The National Assembly vowed to write a new constitution for France. They proceed to so. King Louis XVI agreed to recognize the national Assembly, but after he called troops to Versailles he did. The National Assembly wrote The Tennis Court Oath. It Explained their complaints and new reforms that needed to take place. A majority of their complaints were about the spending of the king and queen and the third Estates unfair treatment. This is a picture of a member of the Third Estate explaining their complaints with the government during the National Assembly. Storming of the Bastille/The Great Fear In Paris there was Unemployment, a raise in prices, food shortages and much more. This Caused many people, especially the Third Estate, to get angry and violent. Mobs formed on the streets. On July 14, 1789, the mobs stormed the Bastille. They released the prisoners, killed the governor of the Bastille, and took the weapons. They proceeded to destroy the building and sell the bricks as a symbol of their rebellion. This led to the Great Fear. Many people began to think that they could get what they wanted through violet acts. The Great Fear is an example of this. The Great Fear was when the serfs from the country side began to attack their manor lords and nobles. They destroyed all documents that tied them to their land. Many lords fled in fear. This is a picture of the mobs storming the Bastille to free the prisoners and steal the gun powder and weapons French Republic The new government took office. They were known as the National Convention. The National Convention meet after Parisian mobs violently took the streets again. The National Convention meet in Paris in September 1792. There were two very radical groups. They were the Girondists and the Jacobins. They both wanted to abolish the absolute monarch. The Girondists wanted the peasents to have control over the government and the Jacobins wanted the middle to have control in the government. The Jacobins held majority in the National Convention. The leaders were George-Jacques Dalton and Maximilien Robespierre. The abolished the monarchy and made France a Republic. A republic is when the people of the country vote on representatives. King Louis was accused and executed for treason. The National convention ended slavery in French colonies, eliminated primogeniture, and there was a birth of nationalism. The Directory meet in October 1795. They wrote a new constitution and returned power back to the conservative middle class. They limited voting to property owners. They had two house legislature that would select five directors as an executive body. The Directory was not successful in solving France's problems. Too many foreign nations wanted to stop the spread of revolutionary ideas. King Louis XVI's Execution Dear Journal,

My Name Is King Louis XVI. I am about to be executed for treason. First i would like to write a journal entry to explain my side of what happen. During the Estates General many people criticized me but i was to concerned with my son who was dying from tuberculosis. In June 1791, i decided to take my family and escape Paris. I got us fake passports and disguised ourselves as normal people. I knew it was wron but i did not know what to do at this point. Unfortunately, we were recognized. I was arested and brought back to Paris. I was accused of many things. Some of them were true. I was accused of treason. I had good reasons though. I thought that is other countries invaded France i would gain my power back. I was just trying to restore the national Monarchy. I am now scheduled to be executed on January 21, 1793. Before i am killed by the guillotine, I would like everyone to know i did what i thought was best, and in the future you will regret executing me. Please do not harm my wife, Marie Antoinette, or any of my children.

Sincerely,
King Louis XVI This is a picture of the people of France holding up King Louis XVI's head after his execution. The Reign of Terror The Reign of Terror was a time period where many people died. It lasted about one hundred years. During this Time anyone who was accused of anti revolutionary acts was executed by the guillotine. Many people were falsely executed because there was no way to prove that they did not have anti revolutionary ideas. The people who led the Reign of Terror were Maximilien Robespierre and George-Jacques Danton. They were members of The Committee of Public Safety that was appointed by the National Convention.mThe First group of people to be executed were the Girondists. Many Girondists fled France in fear. More than twenty thousand people were executed using the guillotine and many more were put in jail during The Reign of Terror. Many people fled France in fear. Everyone was paranoid. There was a lot of blood shed and fear during this time period. In the spring of 1794 Robespierre turned on Danton because Danton believed that the Reign of Terror should end and to Robespierre that was not right. The moderates to control of the Convention and overthrew Robespierre. Robespierre was later executed. It is ironic that Robespierre was the one who started the blood shed in the Reign of Terror and was the last to shed blood. This is a picture of Maximilien Robespierre while in power during the Reign of Terror Napoleon's Rise Dear Journal,

My Name is Napoleon. I was an honorable soldier. i joined the army camp at age ten and was general by age twenty-four. At age thirty I was given command of the French armies to fight Austria in Norther Italy in 1779. Soldiers admired me, and i was a strong leader. I fought along side my soldiers in battle. Austria, Britain, and Russia formed the second coalition. The Directory could not handle the situation. I plotted against the government because i knew i could do a better job and therefore, the Directory was abolished. I set up a new government and called it the Consulate. I was the first consul. At first i was only suppose to be consul for ten years but obviously with my great skill, i was decided to be consul for life. In 1804 I crowned myself Emperor. Many people were scared that i would become an absolute monarch. I have to say, I was very popular with the citizens of France. I came up with the Napoleonic Code, which was a group of laws. These laws were the most progressive laws in France's history. It ordered equality of all citizens, and abolished serfdom for good. I also ordered freedom religion and occupation. I improved education, and made the tax system fair. I balanced the budget and returned some power to the Roman Catholic Church. That was to help with my popularity. In 1805 A Third Coalition was formed. For the next ten years my country, France, was almost always at war. My main goal was to conquer and gain land. My biggest enemy was Great Britain. I tried to Invade British Isles but the fleet was destroyed. I was such a good ruler. I had victories over Austria, Russia and Prussia. I abolished the Holy Roman Empire and changed the map of Europe. I had no control over Great Britain and that was a problem. I came up with the Continental system. No one could trade with Britain and i hoped it would hurt their economy. Unfortunately, my plan did not work as well as i hoped because Britain could still trade with America.

Sincerely,
Napoleon This is a Picture of me on my horse being as powerful and strong as i always am. I am above all of the other generals. Some people call me arrogant but i am just expressing the truth. The Fall of Napoleon Napoleon's Empire began to crack. At first Napoleon was welcomed as a strong leader. Then, he made people pay taxes and provide soldiers for the French army. Many people did not like that and began to see Napoleon as an invader. Nationalism began to develop. Russia decided to start trading with Britain during the Continental System because it was hurting their economy. With six hundred thousand troops, Napoleon decided to invade Russia because he was mad. Russia retreated, and burned all their food and supplies on their was to Napoleons troops could not use their resources. The French had to retreat because it was the middle of winter and they had very little food or clothes. Napoleon lost many great soldiers fighting, and now the only soldiers he had were either very young or old. one hundred thousand soldiers survived Austria, Russia, and Prussia formed a new alliance against France. In 1813 Napoleon was defeated at Saxony in the battle of Nations. Napoleon was exiled to the island of Elba, which is an island near Italy. While Napoleon was gone King Louis XVIII came to power. When Napoleon returns to France, Louis XVIII fled. Napoleon was defeated at the battle of Waterloo in 1815, for the last time. Napoleon was exiled to the island of St. Helena where he died in 1821. This is a map of Europe after Napoleon reorganized the map of Europe. The dark blue shows the French Empire. This is a picture from when Napoleon had to retreat after the invasion of Russia. Many people died from the harsh winter conditions and lack of food, water, and clothing. King Louis XVI Louis XIV was born August 3, 1754, in the palace of Versailles. His father died in 1765 and his mother died in 1767, both from Tuberculosis. In 1770 Louis XIV married Marie Antoinette. After the death of his grandfather Louis XVI came to the throne in 1774 when he was nineteen. When King Louis XVI came to power France was in a big Debt. He was an Absolute Monarch. He had complete power although he was a weak ruler. He believed in Divine right. I believed he got his power from God. King Louis XIV desperately wanted to be loved by the people of France. Louis XVI focused primarily on religious uniformity and foreign policy. King Louis XVI signed the Edict of Tolerance that granted French non-Catholics legal status and the right to openly practice their faith. France was in debt because of the kings costly wars and his wife lavish life style. King Louis XVI needed help so he called the Estates General to meet. They meet in May 1789. During the Estates General meeting, Louis XVI was more concerned with caring for his son who had tuberculosis, than the political crisis. King Louis XVI's failure to address France's problems started the revolution. The Third Estate declared itself the National Assembly because they were unhappy. They developed a constitution. Initially, Louis XVI resisted. Public's hatred grew. By July 1789, he was forced to acknowledge the National Assembly’s authority. On July 14, riots broke out in Paris and crowds stormed the Bastille prison in a show of hatred toward king Louis XVI. In June 1791 Louis XVI and his family tried to escape Paris. They wore disguises and had fake passports. They were recognized and brought back to pairs. KIng Louis XVI was accused of treason because he wrote letters to the Kings of Sweden, Prussia and Spain, telling them to invade so he could restore his absolute monarch. and beheaded on January 21, 1793. His wife was killed a few months later. This is a picture of King Louis XVI. It shows how much wealth he had in comparison to the rest of France that was in great debt. Marie Antoinette Marie Antoinette was born on 2 November 1755 at the Hofburg Palace in Vienna, Austria. She was the daughter of Francis I, the Holy Roman Emperor, and her mother was Maria Theresa. Maria Theresa was the Queen of Hungary and Bohemia, and ruler of the Habsburg region. Marie Antoinette married Louis XVI, and became the queen of France. Marie Antoinette was a strong outgoing person, opposite of her husband. This made it very easy for her to interfere with King Louis XVI's ruling.Marie Antoinette gave birth to a daughter, Marie Therese Charlotte. Marie Antoinette spent very little time with her husband. There were many rumors about different love affairs. The people of France despised Marie Antoinette. She lived a lavish life style and wasted the public's money on things that she did not need. On October 5, 1789 a crowd of 10,000 gathered outside the Palace at Versailles and demanded that the King. The shouted "bread." They refused to leave unless the king and Marie Antoinette went back to Paris, and they did. Marie Antoinette's most famous line, that was actually never said is "let them eat cake." that was what she supposivly said to the peasants. Marie Antoinette wrote letters to other monarchs. she told them that Louis XVI and she were going to leave France. She asked them to invade France, to put down the revolution and return Louis XVI to his role as the absolute monarch. After trying to escape, being recognized, and brought back to Paris, Marie Antoinette was accused of treason and executed with the guillotine eight months after her husband. This is a picture of Marie Antoinette . She is wearing lavish clothing and jewelry because that is the type of life style she lived. She is blamed for being one of the reasons France was in such a big debt. Napoleon Bonaparte Napoleon Bonaparte was born August 5, 1769 in Ajaccio Corsica. He is well known for being the first emperor of France and the Napoleonic Code. His father was Carlo Bounapart and his mother was Letizia Ramolino. His father first supported the nationalist leader Pasquale Paoli, but after Pasquale Paoli was forced to flee the island of Corsica. Carlo then switched ans sided with France. Because of this Napoleon and his brother were unable to attend France's College Autun. Napoleon attended the Military College of Brienne for five years. After this Napoleon moved to the military academy in Paris. Napoleon's father died in 1785, while napoleon was at the academy. He graduated from the military academy early and returned to Corsica is 1786. Napoleon and his family moved to France when a civil war broke out in Corsica in April 1793. Napoleon returned to France return to serving with the French military in June 1793. Napoleon showed his supported the Jacobins. He lived through the reign of Louis XVI and France under the control of Robespierre. Napoleon was part of Directory in 1795. In 1796 France invaded Austria with their commander, Napoleon leading the way. Napoleon was a great military leader who won many wars. Napoleon Married Tascher de La Pagerie, and they had two children. They were married March 9, 1796. A new government system was created, called the consulate. Napoleon was the first consul. At first he was only suppose to be consul for ten years but that changed to consul for life. In 1804 Napoleon crowned himself emperor.One major thing Napoleon is known for is the Napoleonic Code. He also made many reforms. Napoleons main goal was to conquer land. In 1805 the third coalition was formed between Britain, Austria, Spain, and Prussia. for the next ten years, France was almost always at war.Napoleons biggest enemy was Great Britain. He to invade Britain but the fleet was destroyed. Napoleon reorganized the map of Europe with his victories with Austria, Russia, and Prussia, and abolishing the Holy Roman Empire. Napoleon had no control over Britain so he put the Continental system in place. No one could trade with Britain. Napoleon had the citizens of France pay taxes and provide soldiers for war. many people got angry and thought of Napoleon as an invader. Russia decided to resume trade with Britain. This lead to Napoleon sending 600,000 troops to Russia. Russia retreated an burned their supplies as they went to Napoleon and his troops could not us it. The French had to retreat. This started the fall of napoleon. A new alliance against Napoleon formed. It consisted of Russia, Prussia, and Ausrtia. They wanted to restore the monarchy. In 1813 Napoleon was defeated in the Battle of Nations. He was exiled to Alba. He escaped and returned to France. In 1815 Napoleon was defeated at the Battle of Waterloo. Napoleon was now exiled to the island of St. Helena, off the cost of Africa. It is in the Atlantic Ocean.That is where he died. Napoleon had a long lasting legacy. The peasants, middle class, and workers maintained their statuses and the clergy and nobility never gained back their privileges. He preserved some ideas of The French Revolution but also acted like a dictator. Maximilien Robespierre Maximilien Marie Isidore de Robespierre was born, of Irish origin, at Arras, May 6, 1758. was elected to the Estates General in 1789 by Artois. After the king's death, on January 21, 1793, the Jacobins gained control of France. France formed the first Coalition. The National Convention appointed a committee of Public Safety. The first Committee of Public Safety was in April 1793. Robespierre was elected into the Committee of public Safety in July, and was now one of the actual rulers of France, along with the rest of the Twelve other members. They put together the largest army in European history. They had a military draft. With George-jacques Danton, Robespierre started the Reign of Terror. They executed anyone accused of antirevolutionary ideas using the guillotine. The Girondists were the first to be executed, and many fled. This was a time of paranoia and fear. In the spring of 1794 Robespierre turned on Danton because Danton thought the reign of terror needed to end. Moderates took over the Convention. They overthrew Maximilien Robespierre and hw was later executed by the guillotine. This was the end to the Reign of Terror and the life of Robespierre. This is a picture of Robespierre shedding the last bit of blood for the Reign of Terror, and the violent period coming to an end. This is a picture of the map of Europe after the Congress of Vienna in 1815. It shows how they redrew it.
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