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Anatomy & Physiology: The Reproductive System

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james donahue

on 21 June 2016

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Transcript of Anatomy & Physiology: The Reproductive System

The
Reproductive
System

Male
Overview
primary sex organs -

gonads
gonads produce

gametes
accessory structures -
glands, ducts, external genitalia
hormones -
testosterone, progesterone, estrogens
homologous structures - everything guys have, girls have and everything girls have, guys have (except a uterus and vagina - guys have nothing like that...)

gonad
testis
gamete
sperm

accessory structures
glands
seminal vesicle
prostate
bulbourethral

ducts
epididymis
ductus deferens
ejaculatory duct
urethra

Female
gonad
ovary
gamete
egg (ovum)

accessory structures
glands
vestibular glands

external genitalia
scrotum
penis
prepuce

hormones
testosterone

ducts
uterine tubes
uterus
vagina

external genitalia
mons pubis
labia majora
labia minora
clitoris

hormones
estrogens
progesterone

Testis
testis
epididymis
urethra
corpus
spongiosum
corpus
cavernosum
ductus (vas)
deferens
bulbourethral
gland
prostate
gland
urinary
bladder
pubis
ureter
seminal
vescicle
Scrotum
sac of tissue outside the abdominopelvic cavity
contains paired testicles
separated by a midline septum
keeps testes cool
http://1.usa.gov/IJySKN
Cryptorchidism
http://bit.ly/JlDKoc
Female Circumcision
spermatic
cord
cremaster m.
(from the internal oblique m.)
septum
testis
testicular artery,
veins, nerve and the vas deferens
dartos m.
inguinal
canal
envelopes the
spermatic
cord
femoral a.
ductus (vas)
deferens
epididymis
testis
prostate
urinary
bladder
ureters
seminal
vesiciles
pelvic
floor
bulbourethral
glands
urethra
corpus
spongiosum
corpora
cavernosa
male gonad
contain seminiferous tubules (produce sperm)
non-motile sperm cells enter epididymis
interstitial cells produce testosterone
Penis
delivers sperm into female reproductive tract
attached to the pubis and ischium by ligaments
possesses three columns of erectile tissue: 2
corpus cavernosum
and a single
corpus spongiosum
terminates at the
glans
which is covered by the
prepuce
prepuce
(foreskin)
tunica
albugenia
urethra
corpus
spongiosum
corpus
cavernosum
Erection
parasympathetic response
increase nitric oxide
vasodilation of arterioles
erectile tissues fill with blood
expansion compresses veins
corpora cavernosa maintain erection
corpus spongiosum keeps urethra open
Ejaculation
sympathetic response
reproductive glands contract
internal urethral sphincter contracts
bulbospongiosus muscles rhythmically contract to eject semen
Epididymis
Ductus (Vas) Deferens
conveys sperm via peristalsis back into the abdomino-pelvic cavity
empties into the
ejaculatory duct
, through the prostate and finally the
urethra
Accessory Glands
Prostate
Seminal Vesicles
Bulbourethral Glands
join ductus deferens
secrete alkaline fluid rich in fructose and prostaglandins
~60% of seminal fluid
walnut sized, doughnut-shaped structure encircling the urethra
secretes chemicals needed to "activate" the sperm
produce a thick, clear, alkaline mucus
neutralizes traces of acidic urine
Semen
sperm and accessory gland secretions
provides a transport medium and nutrients
pH ~ 7.2 - 7.6
energize sperm (fructose)
enhance sperm motility (relaxin)
contains chemicals to facilitate sperm movement through the female reproductive tract (prostaglandins)
suppress the female's immune response (seminalplasmin)
~2-5 ml/ejaculate with ~20-150 million sperm
head
midpiece
tail
Spermatogenesis
Ducts
epi - "atop"
didym - "twins"
~6 m. (~20 ft.) of coiled tube
nonmotile sperm enter via
peristalsis
~20 days, sperm "swim"
pubis
urinary bladder
urethra
vagina
cervix
labia minora
clitoris
vestibular gland
uterus
uterine (Fallopian)
tube
ovary
ovarian ligament
round ligament
infundibulum
fimbriae
uterine tube
endometrium
myometrium
perimetrium
cervix
vagina
ovary
broad
ligament
uterus
Cervical
Intraepithelial
Neoplasia
The Ovary
The Uterine Tube
most common site of fertilization
moves egg via peristalsis and ciliary movements
expands around but does not touch the ovary
fimbriae "sweep" the egg into the infundibulum
The Uterus
most common site of implantation
ends at the muscular cervix
composed of three layers:
1) perimetrium (connective tissue)
2) myometrium (smooth muscle)
3) endometrium
stratum basalis
stratum functionalis
The Vagina
a passageway for birth, menstrual flow and copulation
comprised of stratified squamous epithelium, smooth muscle and lots of elastic fibers
The Perineum
The Perineum
diamond-shaped region from the pubic arch to the coccyx out to the ischial spines laterally
encompasses the vestibule (structures within the labia minora - clitoris, urethral orifice, and vaginal oriface), labia majora and anus.
clitoris
urethral
oriface
vaginal
oriface
pubic arch
ischial
spine
ischial
spine
coccyx
anus
The Ovarian Cycle
11-12 primordial follicles mature into primary follicles
primary follicles mature into secondary follicles
secondary follicles mature into vescicular (Graafian) follicles
ovulation - the release of one ovum with the corona radiata
remaining cells degenerate into the corpus luteum and secrete progesterone
~10 days, corpus luteum degenerates into the corpus albicans
The Uterine (Menstrual) Cycle
Days 1-5
- menstrual phase
(the shedding of the endometrial layer)
Days 6-14
- proliferative phase
(the endometrium rebuilds itself)
Day 14
- ovulation
Days 15-28
- secretory phase
(the endometrium prepares for implantation
Urogenital
Embryology
Julia Sweeney - The Talk
http://bit.ly/thepillcancer
The Pill and Breast Cancer Risk
You don't want this, do you?
genital tubercle
urethral fold
labioscrotal swelling
anus
tail (cut)
Be sure you can:
Spectrum of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)
Normal (left) turning into CIN (right)
Birth Control Pills Make Ugly Men Hot
www.youtube.com/watch?v=jkR26SiaBFQ
Full transcript