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Mallorey Himmel

on 28 February 2012

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Transcript of SODIUM TAKE TWO

Emily and Mallorey Health Benefits Formula and Structure molecular pathway Symptoms of a Deficiency SIADH - Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone Cancer and Heart Disease Gatorade Sodium is mainly absorbed into the cell by cotransport with glucose and amino acids. This means that efficient sodium absorption is dependent on absorption of potassium and sugar.
Once the sodium is taken in from the mouth it goes to the small intestine.
This sodium is absorbed into the cell through the sodium pumps.
Water diffuses in response to the osmotic gradient established by sodium.
Sodium, as well as water, then diffuses into capillary blood. Sodium deficiency can result in:
• appetite loss
• confusion
• cramps
• dehydration
• eye problems
• fatigue
• heart attack • intestinal gas
• irregular heartbeat
• lethargy
• low blood sugar
• low resistance to infection
• muscle wasting
• vomiting
• weakness Health Benefits of Sodium. (2011, March 1). Facts on Food, Nutrition and Home Remedies. Retrieved May 21, 2011, from http://www.organicfacts.net/health-benefits/minerals/health-benefits-of-sodium.html

Recommended Daily Sodium Intake | LIVESTRONG.COM. (n.d.). LIVESTRONG.COM - Lose Weight & Get Fit with Diet, Nutrition & Fitness Tools. Retrieved May 21, 2011, from http://www.livestrong.com/article/4734-need-recommended-daily-sodium-intake/#ixzz1MTcGyQNT

Study: Cutting Sodium Can Have Health Benefits - TIME. (n.d.). Breaking News, Analysis, Politics, Blogs, News Photos, Video, Tech Reviews - TIME.com. Retrieved May 21, 2011, from http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1955384,00.html#ixzz1MTZUBGva

Bowen, R. (1995, October 22). Absorption of Water and Electrolytes. The Small Intestine: An introduction. Retrieved May 20, 2011, from www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/digestion/smallgut/absorb_water.html

Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion . (2011, April 29). Wrong Diagnosis. Retrieved May 20, 2011, from www.wrongdiagnosis.com/d/dilutional_hyponatremia/book-diseases-20a.htm

Sodium. (n.d.). Food & Diet. Retrieved May 20, 2011, from www.foodanddiet.com/NewFiles/sodium

Sodium. (2010, June 8). Health Supplements Nutritional Guide. Retrieved May 20, 2011, from www.healthsupplementsnutritionalguide Sources and Recommended Daily Intake •Recommended intake value: less than 2300 mg/day for adults (=one teaspoon of table salt).
•The minimum requirement for normal body function: about 500 mg/day.
***FUN FACT: by cutting salt intake nationwide, the U.S. could save $10 billion to $24 billion annually in health care costs. Sources of Sodium.....

Some of the important sources of sodium are: apples, common salt, dairy products, homemade soups, cabbage, egg yolks, and bananas. Also, carrots, baking powder and baking soda, shellfish, turnips, leafy vegetables and dried peas are some of the essential sources. Processed foods-such as bread, prepared dinners, bacon, cheese, pizza, fast foods. Lastly, smoked fish and salty meats, snacks, pickles and sauce contains ample amount of sodium. Healthy Sources....

-Salted nuts provide healthy fats, protein and fiber along with sodium.
-Dill pickles, olives and salsas provide sodium without too many calories.
-Lightly salted whole wheat crackers provide sodium and fiber.
*BE CAREFUL…One tablespoon (15 milliliters) of soy sauce, has about 1,000 mg of sodium. Shake it! •Reduction of Sodium could raise the chances of lung infection.
•Depletion of sodium layer is an invitation to diseases that can cause exhaustion, exertion and mental apathy.
•Can also cause stomach cancer and hypertension.
•Those who are suffering from kidney problems and edema (swelling) should strictly restrict the consummation of sodium in their daily diet.
•Can also cause Heart Disease, stroke, and heart attacks. When you perspire, your body loses about 900 to 1400 milligrams of sodium per liter of sweat.
The sodium content of Gatorade is about 450 milligrams per liter; for Powerade, it is 225 mg/L.
Aimed towards people engaged in vigorous physical activity, especially in hot environments.
Plain water WILL NOT replace the electrolytes (sodium and potassium) that the body loses through sweat, nor will it replace any energy. Gatorade replaces both.
Drinking 1 liter of Gatorade will replace the sodium lost in approximately half of a liter of sweat.
low levels: problematic, as sodium helps maintain adequate blood pressure and volume.
Gatorade could be bad because it has a BUNCH of sugar. Even though there is a good amount of other electrolytes, the high sugar count causes problems. It is a great idea to watch your sugar intake, AND there are other alternatives like "Nuun Tablets" that contain more electrolytes/sodium than Gatorate with 0 sugar. Sodium is an important electrolyte and an
essential ion present in the extra cellular fluid (ECF).

Plays an important role in enzyme operation and muscle contraction.
Important for fluid maintenance and blood regulation of the human body.
Other health benefits: heart performance, nervous system and glucose absorption. As an electrolyte, it regulates the body fluid and transmits electrical impulse in the body.
Vital for correct regulation of cells and nerves in the human body.
Supplemental dosage of sodium is necessary during excessive perspiration, sunstroke and adrenal insufficiency.
Regularly excreted through urine. More... Sodium helps with... http://www.vcds-vcemd.forces.gc.ca/dsafeg-dsg/pi/sd-dsg/2-10/images/dfw-dft.jpg http://media.lawrence.com/img/photos/2006/10/08/OKLAHOMA_TEXAS_FOOTBALL_bw_t640.jpg?a6ea3ebd4438a44b86d2e9c39ecf7613005fe067 ~Water Balance ~ Sunstroke ~ Brain function~
~ Muscle cramps/ Muscle contractions ~ Anti-aging~ http://olafitness.files.wordpress.com/2011/02/eating_for_a_healthy_heart http://www.artclips.com/clipart/free/ClipArtCollection8.asp The most common salt is sodium chloride, (NaCl or table salt). www.shannonburns.com http://www.acu.edu/WebSite/news/images/2008/Gilbert-Tuhabonye.jpg http://www.primoclipart.com/view-clipart/fast-food-clip-art http://clipart.toonarific.com/details.php?image_id=1278&sessionid=6can1h6v3c4t3j41cjpojo8 http://constantlygrowing.com/hydro/index.php?main_page=index&cPath=9 http://www.esslab.com/iv/elements/na.html Occurs in more than 80 forms -> versatile!! Symptoms of an Overdose It has been estimated that diets in the U.S. can contain as much as 15 times the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of sodium. An excess is more common than a deficiency. Deficiency can be caused by excessive sodium loss, i.e.: prolonged activity and excessive sweating, or chronic diarrhea or vomiting, or use of diuretics, or adrenal gland disorder. Sodium deficiency is extremely rare, but it can occur. Salt attracks water, so you will probably get bloated. --> build up of fluid
Increased blood volume
high blood pressure
muscle cramps
electrolyte disturbance (which can cause severe/fatal neurological problems. Why you might have an imbalance: Documentation Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion:

Inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or ADH-like peptide occurs in the presence of low serum sodium, low serum osmolality. se•rum/ˈsi(ə)rəm/Noun

1. An amber-colored, protein-rich liquid that separates out when blood coagulates. Genetic causes of SIADH (syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone) are exceedingly rare. However, 2 cases have been described with gain of function mutation in the vasopressin-2 receptor contributing to SIADH and undetectable serum ADH levels. Genetics: http://www.micromountain.com/sci_diagrams/at_struct/at_struct_assets/sodium_lab_eng.jpg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monosodium_glutamate Monosodium glutamate (MSG) The Institute of Medicine suggests an intake of no more than 2,300 mg per day, but the typical American diet contains about TWICE that amount. *Sodium is added to many processed
foods in the form of additives
that are used as preservatives
and flavor enhancers. Sodium benzoate: prevents growth of bacteria: NaC6H5CO2
Sodium bicarbonate: baking soda: NaHCO3
Monosodium glutamate (MSG): falvor enhancer: C5H8NNaO4
Sodium nitrite/nitrate: curing agent: NaNO3
Sodium saccharin: artificial sweetener: C7H5NO3S
Sodium chloride: table salt: NaCl ^ (These are inadvertent sources of sodium.) http://www.biology.arizona.edu/cell_bio/problem_sets/membranes/graphics/cotransport_sys.gif http://faculty.southwest.tn.edu/rburkett/GB1-os29.jpg High levels of AVP secretion (SIADH) and the resulting hyponatremia (low blood sodium levels) occurs in brain diseases and conditions of the lungs (small cell lung carcinoma). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sodium_bicarbonate Sodium benzoate ^ < Sodium saccharin http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sodium_benzoate The sodium-potassium pump pumps sodium out of cells and potassium into cells against a concentration gradient in a manner stoichiometrically balanced as follows: 3Na (intracellular) + 2K (extracellular) + ATP + H2O �
3Na (extracellular) + 2K (intracellular) + ADP + Pi http://www.reusablebottle.co.uk/nuun-kona-cola-electrolyte-tablets-with-caffeine-42800.jpg this can cause... Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is also known as vasopressin
- Neurohypophysial hormone found in most mammals, including humans. Vasopressin is a peptide hormone that controls the reabsorption of molecules in the tubules of the kidneys by affecting the tissue's permeability.
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